Счастливы как никогда несмотря ни на что

Рекордные данные от ВЦИОМ: 85% россиян считают себя счастливыми

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«Стыдно и горько»

Алексей Учитель высказался по поводу экспертизы его фильма «Матильда»

Reading time 6 minutes

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Лишить гражданства нельзя, но можно его аннулировать

Удастся ли обойти Конституцию ради борьбы против радикальных исламистов?

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Россия может отказаться от признания паспортов ДНР и ЛНР

Но на условиях, которые эксперты считают невыполнимыми

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How far is it to the mammoth?

Американский учёный реконструирует геном вымершего животного

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What happened?

A team of scientists led by Professor George Church of Harvard University said that in 2 years will be able to “mamelon” (mammophant) is a hybrid of a mammoth and an elephant. A great achievement of the team was that they were able in 2015 to increase the number of genes of a mammoth that is injected into the egg of an elephant from 15 to 45 writes The Guardian. This means that in the genome of the elephant adds more genes of a mammoth, which are responsible for certain characteristics of the extinct animal that will eventually lead to a full-fledged hybrid of the two, as scientists hope.

“Our goal is to create a hybrid embryo of a mammoth and an elephant. This can happen in a couple of years,” quoted George Church Independent.

From mammoth, the resulting animal will be a shaggy coat, small ears, thick layer of fat and blood, adapted to low temperatures – according to The Guardian.

At the conference, Professor Church said that this project has two goals: to provide an alternative future for the endangered Asian elephants and help in the fight against global warming. In his opinion, woolly mammoths could help prevent the thawing of the tundra due to the greenhouse effect, and thus play an important role in stabilizing ecosystems.

“in the Summer, they felled trees, contributing to the growth of grass,” – quoted by George Church The Guardian.

How is it possible to reconstruct the mammoth?

In 2012, the methodology was developed Crispr/Cas9, which allows you to more precisely edit the genome and splicing of the DNA molecule.

“We hope to do all the treatments outside a living body. It would be unwise to jeopardize an endangered species”, reports the words of the Church The Guardian.

Previously, researchers have proposed to implant a hybrid embryo into the uterus of an elephant, but refused for ethical reasons: the animal during the experiment could die. For example, according to the The Guardian, Matthew Cobb is Professor of Zoology at the University of Manchester believes that the proposed revival of a mammoth raises ethical global problem: the mammoth is not just a set of genes, is a social animal, the Asian elephant. What happens when you have this hybrid? As it will perceive the environment?

the Theme of the revival of the mammoths: history of the issue

In 2005 a group of scientists from Japan was going to impregnate a female elephant with the sperm of a mammoth preserved in the permafrost, and then to be crossing the resulting offspring. Experts suggest that such a process will lead to the appearance of an animal similar to the mammoth, only after 50 years. Even then, skeptics have treated the project with suspicion. They consider it virtually impossible to detect tissue where the DNA molecule is not destroyed or fragmentary – Lenta.Ru

In 2008 a group of Russian geneticists, led by Evgeny Rogaleva were able to decipher the DNA sequence of mitochondria from the wool of mammoth, which caused another surge of discussion on the topic. However, for cloning one mammoth mitochondrial DNA is not enough – said Expert.Ru

In 2011, Japanese scientist Akira Iritani said that around 2015, the light can emerge a real mammoth. This project was criticized by a Professor of the Institute of gene biology, Anatoly Altstein:

I have absolutely no idea how lain 25 thousand years in the permafrost, the cell may remain viable. After all, the kernel must be good that is called “alive,” quoted a scientist Moskovsky Komsomolets.

the Russian scientists do not believe in cloning a mammoth

Alexei Tikhonov, the Deputy Director of the Zoological Institute of the RAS, commented on the draft of the Church as follows:

“This is complete nonsense, of course, a scientific PR. It is strange that such a respected University like Harvard, is engaged in such things”, quotes Life.

According to Tikhonov, cloning is impossible, because it requires a living cell of the mammoth, which no one has.

Michael Gelfand is Professor, doctor of biological Sciences, believes that “editing” the elephant to mammoth will take a very long time:

“…the Cloned mammoth in this sense, never will be. You can do the reverse engineering. Take the elephant and slowly his edit back to mammoth. Now count the generation of the elephants, and the number of differences. It turns out that it would take several hundred thousand years,” writes Professor portal The Question.

Senior researcher of the laboratory of mammalian Paleontological Institute of RAS, doctor of biological Sciences Yevgeny Mashchenko has also included the cloning of the mammoth is impossible:

“At the present level of development of science and technology it is impossible to obtain cells for cloning from animals that died more than twenty years ago. I’m not saying that it is impossible in principle — it can’t be done right now,” – the words of Yevgeny Mashchenko Expert.ru

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A hybrid of man and pig obtained for the first time

Эмбрионы-«химеры» станут донорами органов для трансплантации

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What happened?

Japanese University Kindai an international team of researchers (biologists from Japan, Spain and USA) for the first time in history created an embryo, which is a hybrid of man and pig, reports the Washington Post. The description of this experience published the scientific journal Cell.
In the article scientists call a hybrid “Chimera” in mythology it is the name is the creature with the snake tail, the body of a goat and a lion head. The Washington Post called the most successful experiment of the hybridization of man and animal, as well as a major step to obtaining the embryo of the animal functioning of human organs.

How does it work?

Scientists have introduced human stem cells into the embryos of pigs, in the early stages of development. Four weeks later two thousand hybrids 186 of the embryos developed to chimeras – organisms composed of genetically distinct cells. In these embryos human stem cells turned into cells that precede the formation of different types of tissue, including heart, liver and nerve cells.

Although human cells in the Chimera was extremely small, approximately one in 10 thousand, these cells normally worked in “foreign” body. Embryos-hybrids given the opportunity to develop within 28 days (that’s how long the first trimester of pregnancy in pigs), after which for ethical reasons they were destroyed.

According to lead author of the experiment, Professor Juan-Carlos Belmonte Izpisua, work experience took 4 years.

“We clearly underestimated how much effort will be needed. This is the first important step toward growing human organs in a pig’s body. Now we need to figure out how to make human cells turn into the right bodies to implement our main task is to learn how to grow transplanted organs”

quotes the words of Juan Belmonte RIA Novosti.

About 15 years ago, experts began to discuss the feasibility of transplanting animal organs into the human body. To do this, make the immune system not reject the foreign organ. The solution was not found yet, but scientists are developing special methods by which it will be possible to make the immune system “ignore” the foreign body.

Belmonte and the team came to the goal on the other hand – by growing human organs for transplant inside the body of the animal by means of the “genome editor” CRISPR/Cas9. This technology is used as a “killer” of some cells of the embryo at the time of the formation of any organ. Then the scientists administered on an empty seat stem cells of another organism, after which these cells begin to develop in the body, the site of which was cleared.

Why?

The main goal of research is growing in the body of the animal organs suitable for transplant to sick people. The body thus grown is more likely to take root in the human body, as initially it has a very close DNA. In addition, the results of the study can be used when testing new drugs.

What is the reaction of the public?

The fact of the creation of chimeras is causing a public outcry and heated debate. For ethical reasons the national institutes of health (NIH) stopped funding such experiments in 2015, and since then experiments are conducted on private money. In August, 2016 NIH promised to lift the moratorium, but still did not.

According to Belmonte, the fear of the Chimera is more concerned with mythology than with the real danger of a strictly controlled scientific experiments. In addition, as mentioned above, a team of researchers gave a new creature – embryo development was interrupted after 4 weeks.

“This is a sufficient period of time to understand how mixed cells of pigs and humans, but not to initiate ethical debate about adults animal chimeras”

said Juan Belmonte.

What other crossing were implemented in science?

These experiments started about 10 years ago, scientists carried out a crossbreeding mice and rats.

25 January 2016 in the journal Nature published an article describing how the body of the rat was raised by the rat pancreas, which is then transplanted mouse.

However, until now, could not cross a man with a larger animal (e.g., pig or monkey). In particular, this prevents different in the long process of embryo development: a pig’s pregnancy lasts about 4 months, while people – 9.

So it’s safe to say that the team Belmonte made a really significant step of learning how to “settle” the human cells into fetal pigs and mice.

It is noteworthy that the University Kindai in which an experiment was conducted, until being renamed in 2014 was called kinki, in the English language is associated with the meaning “crazy”, “overrun”. Here is crazy!

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Article of Vesti.RU about the benefits and risks of the controversial methods

Дональд Трамп провозгласил новую эпоху

На инаугурации 45-й президент США пообещал вернуть власть народу

Reading time 3 minutes

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Тайное стало явным?

The New York Times сообщает, что российские чиновники признали существование допинговой системы в России

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Неприятие «Истоков»

Родители учеников одной из школ Москвы направили жалобу в Генпрокуратуру, усмотрев в учебной программе пропаганду религии

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What has «Progress» come to?

Грузовой космический корабль развалился над Тувой

Reading time 6 minutes
What happened?

On the 1st of December in the evening Russian space Agency reported about the problems with Progress MC-04 cargo vessel which had been launched from Baikonur to the International space station. The space vehicle docking with the ISS was scheduled for December 3rd. It turned out that Progress had been destroyed over the Republic of Tyva. Roscosmos reports that most of the fragments had burned in the dense atmosphere. Unburned fragments had fallen near the town of Kyzyl, which is the capital of the Republic.

What was the spacecraft to deliver?

The ship was supposed to deliver to the crew about 2.5 tonnes of cargo: fuel, water, food, medical supplies and scientific equipment. On board there were 705 kg of propellant, 50 kg of oxygen, 420 kg of water and about 1,200 kg of food and other things essential for life in space. Apart from this, the vessel was carrying a new spacesuit produced in Russia, fresh fruit for the Christmas table, the system for water and urine recovery for the Russian module and also a new greenhouse for the cultivation of various crops.

Why did “Progress” crash?

As one of the versions of the falling of the Progress MC-04 space vessel can be considered negligence in the manufacture of the third stage of Soyuz-U carrier rocket , RIA Novosti reports, with a reference to a source in the space industry.

In its turn TASS with a reference to its source reports that the state Commission investigating the crash of Progress MC-04 space vessel considers the RD-0110 engine burnout of the third stage of SoyuzU carrier rocket to be the basic version of the incident . According to the source, this could be caused by foreign particles getting into the engine or poor assembly of the engine. These are versions and the true reason of the accident is unlikely to be identified due to the lack of necessary telemetry data and the wreckage of the rocket, TASS source said.

If identification of the reasons is delayed, the launch of the Russian space vessel Progress scheduled for February 2, 2017 may be postponed, reports TASS referring to an informed source. According to it, the investigation can last for several months.

Are the fallen fragments dangerous?

Evgeny Parfenov, a leading engineer of the Department of gravitational astronomy and astrometry of the Research Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics at Tomsk state University says that the falling debris do not pose a threat to the ecological status of the area, as reported TASS. . The expert pointed out that the space vessel had been lost, not the booster. It “had long been separated and was flying by itself.” So there was not a large amount of fuel in it, only the cargot. “The rest most likely won’t fall down. There is nothing toxic in it.

Also the interlocutor of RIA Novosti noted that the area of the fallen debris was sparsely populated, the area was mountain-woody; in this regard there were no complaints about the destruction or casualties. However, the Siberian regional emergency center was tasked to monitor the situation.

What will happen to the ISS?

It’s all right. Roskosmos said that the loss of the cargo ship will not affect the usual operations of the ISS and the life of members of the crew. NASA holds the same opinion. Commonly, the station crew has enough food and everything necessary to safely live for three months if the delivery fails.

“Our astronauts and the Russian astronauts are safe aboard the station. Resources aboard the station are at a sufficient level,” as says in a NASA blog. NASA also noted that the lost goods can be replaced by a Japanese cargo spacecraft HTV-6 starting to the 9th of Dec to the ISS.

Did it happen with Progress before?

The previous accident occurred during the launch of Progress on 28th of April 2015. Then the ship ceased to transmit telemetry and moved to the uncontrolled rotation. On the 8th of May uncontrollably de-orbited and burned in the dense atmosphere, fragments of the ship falling into the Pacific Ocean.

The reason for the accident was abnormal separation of the third stage of the carrier rocket and spacecraft. Defective assembly of RD-0110 was the cause of the fall of Progress M- 12M in August 2011. It was the first crash of Progress. The reason was the blockage of fuel feed line. This manufacturing defect was declared accidental.

On 25th of June 1997 while the redocking of Progress M-34 it crashed into Spektr module of Mir space station, which led to damage to the solar panels and depressurizing of the module. Progresses in various versions have been flying to the ISS since 2000, they have been launched more than 60 times.

Read more
    • Lost fourth “truck” for the ISS in two years. The astronauts run out of food? – article “Meduza”.

he returned To Russia – Who is to blame for the fall of “Progress” and why this is an indictment of the space industry – article “Lenta.ru”.