From Jay-Z to Drake: Richest Rappers

The Forbes rating is headed by the first billionaire in hip-hop culture — Jay-Z

Reading time 7 minutes

In early June, an influential financial publication Forbes published a list of the richest rap artists. The wealthiest rapper in the world is a hip-hop artist Jay-Z, the husband of the famous R’n’B singer Beyoncé. In early 2000s he sang: «I’m already the G.O.A.T. — next stop is the billie». So it happened: today the musician’s capital is one billion dollars. Jay-Z became the first owner of a billion dollars in the history of hip-hop culture.

Jay-Z (Shawn Corey Carter) for the second year in a row becomes the wealthiest rapper in the world

The rapper invested in a private company Uber, music service Tidal, alcohol production company Armand de Brignac и D`Uss. The musician gains his profit from concerts and Roc Nation service, and also a partnership with the recording Studio Def Jam. The real estate of Jay-Z and his wife Beyoncé is estimated at $50 million, and the collection of art objects — $ 70 million.

The younger generation of hip-hop artists takes Jay-Z as an example of success. TV presenter and novice rapper Fab 5 Freddy believes that Jay-Z — an example of how to make the real American dream come true.

Second place — Dr. Dre, $800 million

Dr. Dre (Andre Romelle Young ) was considered the richest artist in hip-hop culture until March 2018

Five years ago, Dr. Dre. declared himself the owner of a billion dollars. However, Forbes did not confirm this information about his financial condition. In 2014, the musician sold his line of headphones Beats by Dr. Dre to Apple for three billion dollars. He owned approximately 20-25% of the company’s shares. For the deal with Apple, hip-hop artist received an advance of about $500 million. Only last summer the company paid Dr. Dre remaining fee, however, even this did not help him top the Forbes’s list.

In recent years, the artist has put his music in the background. Dr. Dre invested his money in real estate and charity. He bought a huge Villa in California for $40 million. Together with partner Jimmy Iovine, he also invested $70 million in the development of the Academy of Arts at the University of Southern California.

Third place — Diddy, $740 million

In 2017, P. Diddy (Sean John Combs)  was recognized as the wealthiest hip-hop artist

Hip-hop artist Diddy earned his first money at the age of 12 by selling newspapers. He admitted this in an interview in the anniversary issue of Forbes. At that time the edition considered Diddy to be the wealthiest and most influential rap artist.

Now the musician takes the third place in the list of the richest rappers. Market fluctuations have a negative impact on his business projects. The most unprofitable were the cable  business Revolt and the clothing brand Sean John.

However, the rapper Diddy owns a successful business as well. For example, the production of luxury vodka Ciroc. Products give the musician a lot of money, as the volume of sales has increased in recent years. According to Forbes, Diddy will soon replace Jay-Z and become a billionaire.

Fourth place — Kanye West, $240 million

Kanye West
In the promotion of the collection of sneakers Yeezy, actively involved the wife of the rapper – Kim Kardashian

The famous performer and husband of epotage Kim Kardashian Kanye West ranks fourth in the list of wealthy colleagues. Recently, the musician can be spotted at private Sunday services on the South coast. West also held an Easter service at the largest Coachella festival.

In 2016, the musician told about his debt of $53 million. Then he suggested the Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg to invest one billion dollars in his projects. In 2019, Kanye West still entered the top five wealthy artists in hip-hop culture, but thanks to another source of investment. Kanye West has a partnership  with the sports brand Adidas for more than one year. Prior to this brand, the artist had a contract with Nike. This collaboration with Adidas brings huge income to the rapper, his line of sneakers Yeezy is gaining more and more popularity. According to Forbes, if Yeezy sales do not stop growing, Kanye West will become a billionaire thanks to the business.

Fifth place — Drake, $150 million

Drake
Hip hop artist Drake produces strong alcohol, which brings him huge profits

Concludes the list of the richest hip-hop artists 32-year-old canadian rapper Drake. But he is already catching up with his colleagues: over the past year, his musician’s capital has doubled. Drake has invested in real estate and in its own brand of whiskey Virginia Black. The rapper cooperates with the XS Nightclub in Las Vegas, which also brings the rapper a large fee.

In 2013, the musician admitted that earning more money is one of his main goals. And he sticks to the plan: since that time, the average price tag for one concert of the artist has grown from $500,000 to more than two million dollars.

British scientists shocked!

It turned out that the ancient Celtic warriors fought with willow bark shields

Reading time 4 minutes

In Leicestershire, England, researchers discovered a 2300-year-old shield that was made from tree bark. This fossil is the only specimen of such a shield of the territory of Europe.

The shield dates back to 395–250 BC. Archaeologists say that the discovery drastically changed their ideas about weapons of the Iron Age and caused a heated discussion between experts.

Щит сохранился благодаря оставлению в заболоченной яме
The shield is preserved because it was left in a marshy pit. (Photo: University of Leicester)

“This is certainly an amazing object, one of the most iconic and world-important finds I have seen in all my work,” admitted Julia Farley, curator of British and European Iron Age collections in the British Museum.

In 2015, researchers from the University of Leicester Archaeological Service near the Soar River found a shield. According to Matt Beamish, the chief archaeologist of the study, objects from natural materials of this time are extremely rarely preserved, but the shield has survived in marshy soil. Maybe he was specially placed in a water-filled pit.

Matt Beamish added that shields from the bark of that period had never been found in the northern hemisphere before. It was assumed that the wood material was too flimsy for use in wars. However, the reconstruction of weapons from alder and willow proved that the 3 mm thick shield was light but reliable enough in the battles of that time. According to Beamish, contrary to researchers’ assumptions, such weapons were widespread in that period.

Процесс реконструкции найденного щита из ольхи и ивы
Alder and willow shield reconstruction process (Photo: University of Leicester)

The weapon is made of green bark, which is reinforced from the inside with slats of the same material. The main part is surrounded by a rim of hazel and wicker willow. Matt Beamish noted that “this is a lost technology,” which was not known before. Apparently, this technique was used in many areas for the manufacture of products from the bark.

Supple green tree, giving the shield strength and shape that remotely resembles the figure eight

“It was important,” says Farley. According to her, the Battersea shield had a similar shape. It was extracted from the Thames in the middle of the 19th century and dates from the same period.

Щит Баттерси
Battersea Shield (Photo: British Museum)

Farley argues that the visual world of the Iron Age is lost for us, since from the period 395-250 BC few artifacts left. She added that a new find for her is “a small window into that world.” For Farley, this awareness is “incredible and so exciting.”

The shield was donated to the British Museum. Farley hopes that the shield will be exhibited in the museum next year.

How to become an international volunteer

You can go abroad and get a language practice almost for free

Reading time 5 minutes

Many people dream to visit another country and join its culture, especially those who study a foreign language. But what if there is no money for a trip abroad? You can use an international volunteer program and in return receive practice of live communication with native speakers – such opportunities are provided by work of the volunteer. There are two ways to become a volunteer abroad.

The first way. Travel to a foreign country as a volunteer will help intermediary agencies.

International volunteer camp

Volunteers do not only physical work. They can teach children a foreign language or help the homeless

Each camp has its own theme. Some invite volunteers to clean the forest, others – to help the homeless, and others – to participate in the filming of the host country. Often it is spelled out possible work for volunteers in the description of the camp. The main task is to read everything carefully and choose the place where, in your opinion, you can fully reveal yourself. Organizers from one camp invite 10-20 people, they work together about 4-6 hours a day, and the rest of the time can be spent as they prefer. Usually the volunteer program lasts from one to three weeks, but you can find longer projects (for several months or more).

There are almost no age restrictions. Someone requires only adult volunteers, someone needs teenagers – in this case, the project will be marked Teen camp. There are also family camps where volunteers with children are invited. In order to take part in the volunteer program, you must apply on the website of the Russian sending organization (Sphere, Chipmunk, World4you), do not have outstanding criminal records and bad habits such as drug addiction and alcoholism.

The volunteer will live and eat in the camp free of charge, yet the tickets and visa will have to be paid for themselves. In addition, you must pay a fee for participation (about 5-7 thousand rubles for short programs). Many people claim it is embarrassed. But, as it is explained by the organizators, the money goes to the maintenance of the sending company (office rent, payment for the Internet, phones, electricity, etc.), and is a guarantee that the volunteer will get a place in the camp.  A month before the trip the participant receives a route, information about what to take with them, and contacts of the camp leader.

European Solidarity Corps (ESC)

The logo of the European corps of solidarity

Another program that allows young people aged from 18 to 30 years to go abroad as a volunteer. The European Union has been implementing it for 20 years. Conditions of participation are similar to the requirements of the International volunteer camp: a volunteer can participate in the project from two weeks to a year, must work from 30 to 38 hours a week and have a basic knowledge of English.

The company compensates all expenses: tickets, accommodation, food and transport. In addition, it provides the opportunity to attend language courses and go to two volunteer training. So, constant communication in a foreign language is exactly provided!

The second way. You can search for a volunteer program on your own, without intermediaries.  This is the most difficult and often unsafe way. But with the self-selection of the program, the participant will not have to pay the fee required by the Agency. However, in this case, no one will guarantee that the conditions of staying abroad as a volunteer will meet your expectations.

Garbage was at the bottom of the deepest point of the ocean

American explorer made a record dive into the Mariana Trench

Reading time 4 minutes

Victor Vescovo descended into the deepest point of the ocean. His bathyscaphe reached the bottom of the world famous Mariana Trench. The depth of immersion was 16 meters more than in the previous descent in 1960.

Впадина
Mariana Trench – Oceanic Deepwater Chute in the Western Pacific

The American explorer reached the Challenger Deep, the deepest known point in the ocean, its depth is 11,000 meters.

 

What did the researcher discover?

Victor Vescovo, a retired naval officer, was stunned to find something similar to plastic in the deepest point of the ocean. At this time, he was in a machine specially designed to withstand tremendous pressure. After spending four hours under water, he remembered only rubbish. It was a plastic bag and candy wrappers.

Plastic waste in the ocean, according to UN estimates, reached 100 million tons.

Последнее погружение достигло 10 927 м (35 849 футов) под водой - новый рекорд
The last dive at 10,927 m (35,849 ft) is a new record (Photo: TAMARA STUBBS)

For the last three weeks, Vescovo has dived four times into the Mariana Trench to collect various biological samples and forms of rocky soil. He is the third man who descended to the bottom of the Mariana Trench. The last who tried to do this was Canadian film director James Cameron in 2012, and before that, one of the US Navy lieutenants in the 1960s plunged into the hollow. Vescovo dive was the deepest in history.

The expedition was watched by Atlantic Productions, which collected material for a documentary for the Discovery Channel. Work under pressure, poor visibility and low water temperature made it difficult to shoot. Anthony Geffen, creative director of Atlantic Productions, said it was the hardest shot in his experience.

Виктор Весково провел четыре часа, исследуя дно траншеи
Victor Vescovo spent four hours, exploring the bottom of the trench (Photo: ATLANTIC PRODUCTIONS FOR DISCOVERY)

“Our team had to pioneer new camera systems that could be mounted on the submersible, operate at up to 10,000m below sea level and work with robotic landers with camera systems that would allow us to film Victor’s submersible on the bottom of the ocean. ”

After the completion of the expedition at the end of this year, the team plans to transfer the apparatus to scientific institutions. After, the researchers will be able to use the device in further work.

Wikipedia became unavailable in the Middle Kingdom

China blocks access to all language editions of the Internet Encyclopedia

Reading time 4 minutes

Now China blocks access to Wikipedia, although previously only Chinese-language online encyclopedia publications were censored. The blocking began last month, according to an online monitoring service that runs under the Tor project. Attempting to access any Wikipedia page from a country, regardless of language, produces a connection error.

In April, Wikipedia joined to thousands of websites blocked in China

A separate group on the control of censorship Greatfire.org reported that China has blocked access to Wikipedia since April 22. Local users of Chinese network platforms also confirm limited access to the site.

It is not clear why the Chinese government blocked sites. But observers suggest the restriction may be due to the upcoming 30th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square massacre (June 4, 1989). The government has banned all discussions on this event. The block may be temporary. A similar situation: in January, China, without informing, blocked, and then unlocked the Microsoft Bing search engine.

Over the years, the country selectively blocked some Wikipedia pages that criticized its communist government. However, in 2015, China began blocking access to Mandarin-language Wikipedia pages after the encyclopedia website switched to HTTPS encryption to protect users from unauthorized monitoring.

Attempting to access a Wikipedia page from a country, regardless of language, causes a connection error

Last month, the Wikimedia Foundation confirmed the blocking and reported that Wikipedia is not available in China. In addition, Wikimedia added that it did not receive notification of government plans. Previously, only the Chinese version of the site was banned in the country.

In a statement, the foundation said: “In late April, the Wikimedia Foundation determined that Wikipedia was no longer accessible in China. After closely analysing our internal traffic reports, we can confirm that Wikipedia is currently blocked across all language versions.”

“With the expansion of this block, millions of readers and volunteer editors, writers, academics, and researchers within China cannot access this resource or share their knowledge and achievements with the world. When one country, region, or culture cannot join the global conversation on Wikipedia, the entire world is poorer, ” the group added.

Wikipedia has been censored in other countries, including repression in Turkey and Venezuela (Photo: TWITTER / BALKANS123)

The encyclopedia edited by the community is periodically blocked by authorities around the world.

In 2017, the site was blocked in Turkey, and this year it was periodically blocked in Venezuela.

 

How Audrey Hepburn became an icon of style

5 fashion attributes associated with the name of the actress

Reading time 6 minutes

Audrey Hepburn was born on May 4, 1929 in Brussels. Filmography of star of the film “Breakfast at Tiffany’s” has more than 100 works. “Roman Holiday”, “Sabrina”, “Ondine” became classics of the golden era of Hollywood. But Audrey Hepburn admired the audience not only with her acting, but also with her style. Ballet shoes, cropped trousers, short hair, massive glasses and clothes from Givenchy invariably associated with her name.

Ballet flats

Image of Audrey Hepburn for the role in the film "Sabrina"
Image of Audrey Hepburn for the role in the film “Sabrina”

The actress in her youth was fond of ballet, so she loved ballet flats and loafers, which resembled pointe shoes. She preferred flat shoes (especially Tod’s) to heels. She wore this shoe both in movies and in everyday life.

Cropped trousers

Образ Одри Хепберн для фильма "Любовь после полудня"
Love in the Afternoon (1957) – Audrey Hepburn

In the 1950s and 1960s, two trends struggled for leadership in the fashion industry — a laconic beatnik style and an extravagant haute couture. The symbol of the first became short pants, in which Audrey Hepburn starred in “Sabrina” and “Funny Face”. The image she added ballet flats.

Short haircut

Одри Хепберн на съемках "Римских каникул"
Audrey Hepburn in the movie “Roman Holiday”

Ultrashort haircuts, pixie and bob became iconic in 1965 thanks to the British stylist Vidal Sassoon, “The Beatles of Hairdressing”, according to the NY Times. But the heroines of Audrey began experimenting with hair length even earlier. So, Audrey has no curls in “Roman holidays” of 1953 and “Sabrina” 1954. She follows the same tendency in the films “Love in the Afternoon” 1957, “How to Steal a Million” 1966 and “Two in a Way” 1967.

Massive glasses

Модель солнцезащитных очков "Manhattan" Oliver Goldsmith в фильме "Завтрак у Тиффани"
Sunglasses model “Manhattan” Oliver Goldsmith in the movie “Breakfast at Tiffany’s”

In the early 1960s, Hollywood celebrities and Audrey Hepburn turned massive sunglasses into a trend. The actress favored the British brand Oliver Goldsmith. So in “Breakfast at Tiffany’s” Holly Golightly appears in glasses with leopard rim and dark green glasses – this is the Manhattan model, which is confused with Ray-ban Waybarer. The main character of “How to Steal a Million” Nicole, and Yuhu Joanna in “Two on the Road” chose Koko in a white volume frame. All three vintage models can be purchased in brand boutiques.

Sunglasses “Yuhu” Oliver Goldsmith in the movie “Two on the Road”

Fashion house Givenchy

Audrey Hepburn was a muse and a close friend of designer Hubert de Givenchy. He created dozens of costumes for her heroine, including a lace veil, which the actress showed in the movie “How to Steal a Million”, and a miniature black dress with a cut on the back, which became the hallmark of “Breakfast at Tiffany’s”. Audrey has repeatedly said that the status of an icon of style is a merit of Hubert de Givenchy.

Одри Хепберн в фильме "Сабрина"
Audrey Hepburn in a Givenchy dress in the movie “Sabrina”

Many of the outfits created by this designer, entered the history of fashion. Sketches are often rethought, refined and reappeared on the podiums. Thus, a dress with a boat neckline, which the heroine “Sabrina” wears, formed the basis of the wedding dress of Meghan Markle, Duchess of Sussex in 2018.

Свадебное платье герцогини Сассекской
Wedding dress of the Duchess of Sussex

The son of the actress, Sean Hepburn Ferrer, in a book devoted to his mother, “Audrey Hepburn, An Elegant Spirit”, tells the story of how Hubert de Givenchy provided a personal jet for his mother. She was diagnosed with a tumor at the age of 63. Doctors suggested that no more than 3 months left to live. Audrey’s only desire was to leave the California hospital, return to Switzerland and spend the Christmas holidays with her family. The flight would not have taken place without the help of friends Hubert de Givenchy and Bunny Mellon. The aircraft was lined with flowers. After the death of the actress, the designer was appointed the official manager of the inheritance.

Around the World with Dior: cruise shows from French Fashion House

A resort show of the brand took place in Marrakech on April 29

Reading time 4 minutes

The place of rendezvous for celebrity, VIP guests, stylists, journalists and other representatives of the fashion industry was the Palace of El-Badi, built in 1578. Models demonstrated clothing with ethnic music. The pond, lined with candles, was the setting for the podium. Fabrics with waxed prints, which incorporate the cultural code of African countries, have become the leitmotif of the show.

The destination for the third show with Maria Grazia Chiuri was not chosen by chance. 2020 collection is an homage to the work to Yves Saint Laurent, who drew inspiration in Morocco from the time of his debut work for the home.

Demonstration of resort clothing in Marrakech – this is not the first show of the brand abroad. Cruise collections more than once traveled beyond the borders of their native Paris for the 72-year history of the brand. In 1948, a year after the foundation of the house, Christian Dior launched the Resort and Spring project, the Russian media called it a cruise collection. Potential clients of the campaign are American women who like to spend their winter holidays on warm islands.

“If you travel a lot, you need compact clothes — lightweight and unshakable, which does not take up much space in a suitcase,” Christian Dior wrote in his “Little Fashion Dictionary”.

Christian Dior Resort 2007 in the time of John Galliano

John Galliano revived the tradition of cruise shows. The show took place in New York in 2006, after which Resort-collections became an obligatory part of the fashionable Dior calendar. Since then, the show has been demonstrated twice in New York in 2007 and 2008. The cruise collection visited Shanghai in 2009. In May 2015, Villa Palais Bulles, a futuristic sculpted mansion of the Hungarian architect Antti Lovag, was chosen as the showcase for the cruise collection. This mansion resembles a stretched mass of terracotta colored bubbles. Then Christian Dior fans were invited to the residence of the Dukes of Marlborough Blenheim Palace, near Oxford, where in 1954 Christian Dior made a show of the winter collection to raise funds for the British branch of the Red Cross.

Dior cruise collection at the Palais Bulles Villa

Maria Grazia Chiuri left the post of Valentino creative director and took the place of Raf Simons who left Dior in 2016. Her first cruise collection 2017 was held in the California desert, and the next one took the audience to the equestrian Palace of Chantilly, built by architect IV Auber. This estate played a big role in the history of the fashion house, Christian Dior called a bright symbol of the French savoir-vivre (“the art of living”).

Show of Dior cruise collection in the California desert

 

Americans are shocked: Apple has released the card with cashback

Russian users are only grinning, cashback is not new for them

Reading time 4 minutes

Apple has presented its own virtual credit card – Apple Card. When paying by credit card, the company instantly returns 2% of the total purchase amount. It is easy to order a card: just spent a few minutes in the Apple Wallet app. To use the service you need only the iPhone.

At the presentation, the card was given not so much time as the rest of Apple’s new products, but presented in sufficient details. The company showed its physical carrier – a titanium card without a number, a term and a CVV code. All necessary data will be stored on the phone without which it is impossible to use the card.

You can see the history of recent transactions easily in an application that enables you to keep statistics. At the presentation, the user-friendly interface caused delight and loud applause from the audience. The fact that the Apple card has interested users is also confirmed by media statistics. The chief editor of The Verge, Nilay Patel, said that the article about the Apple Card was the most viewed material about apple products. The Russian Internet publication TJ declared exactly the same.

Apple Card application design

In Russia, such a rush around Apple’s card was viewed with irony. The fact is that Russian users have been familiar with cashback and high-quality online applications. These services have been provided by «Sberbank» , «Tinkoff Bank» and «Rocketbank» for many years.

And this is really the case when the States are in no hurry to keep up with progress. In Russia the flowering of IT technologies in the banking sector began in the 2010s. One of the first innovative banks was «Tinkoff» in 2011, and later – «Rocketbank» in 2013. Therefore, the presence of mobile banking and the return of interest on purchases of a Russian user is no longer surprising.

Russia is one of the leaders among countries that use Apple Pay

According to experts, the Apple Card will not immediately become the market leader. However, it is expected that the card will push for changes stagnant US banking sphere.

How to recognize «date rape drug»

Nail рolish allows you to determine the content of a dangerous substance in the drink

Reading time 5 minutes

Going on a date with a stranger, the girls need to be very careful: a glass of wine or even a сup of coffee can be fatal if they are mixed with drugs or sleeping pills.

Date rape drug

Drugs that rapists add to the drink to the victim, are dangerous because they do not have taste, color and smell, so  is almost impossible to feel them. Such substances are referred to drug rape, these include:

  • Rohypnol is the most common drug in the United States that has become associated with date rape. When used with alcohol causes muscle relaxation and memory lapses. Thus, the victim can not resist, and after the rape does not remember the details of what happened.
  • Ketamine – used for anesthesia, but it provokes confusion, causing hallucinations and nightmares, so the victim suffers both physically and mentally.
  • Xanax is a tranquilizer several times weaker than ketamine, but at excessive doses it has the same strong effect.
  • Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) – acts in the same way as rohypnol, but is a more dangerous drug. It is rarely found in its pure form. Overdoses in most cases lead to death, since it is impossible to neutralize the action of GHB.

The company Drink safe Technologies has created a nail polish that reacts to the above substances: if something is mixed in the drink, the color of the nail polish will change from pink to black. To conduct such a rapid test, it is enough to dip your finger in a drink or drop a little liquid on the nail.

Reaction to drugs

The creators of nail polish – are the students of the faculty of materials science and engineering at the University of North Carolina (USA). They  decided ti launch thus project, because each of them was personally acquainted with the victims of rape on a date, they reported in an interview. According to them, such cases are not uncommon in the United States, especially often it happens in dormitories, so the students decided to take up the problem.

The creators of the nail polish: Tyler Confry-Maloney, Stephen Gray, Ankes Maidan and Tasso von Windheim

Mass production of the nail polish detector has not yet been launched, but the inventors regularly notify all those interested in how the work is progressing. Last year, the project was among the semi-finalists of the startup competition K50, this year it took first place in the State competition of private entrepreneurs.

The project is called «Undercover colors»,  users can donate funds for the research on the official website. Students themselves believe that their invention will help girls feel more protected, and in case of danger – to take action. They write about it on the project page in Facebook.

The logo of the project

Previously, Drink Safe Technologies was engaged in the development of stands for glasses, which also contained a reagent that reacts to the drug. However, this method of checking the drink is too obvious and can provoke a rapist. Therefore, drug detector stands were not in demand.

In the United States found amazing concrete fortifications

Concrete under the prison yard in Alcatraz was found when cement in America was not created

Reading time 4 minutes

Researchers have discovered tunnels and buildings from the time of the American Civil War, buried under the famous prison of Alcatraz Island in San Francisco, California.

под тюремным двором Алькатраса ученые обнаружили крепость, которая долго считалась разрушенной
Under the prison court of Alcatraz, scientists discovered a fortress that was long considered ruined.

Historians have long suspected that a federal prison was erected on the site of military fortifications built in the 1800s. The publication of the journal Near Surface Geophysics, describes the complex, found under the prison yard.

 

The study of the territory of the national park was conducted using ground penetrating radar and ground scanning. Under the recreation yard of the prison, researchers found traces of completely buried buildings, ammunition depots and tunnels. “These ruins are well preserved and are located close to the surface,” said Timothy de Smet, an archaeologist at Binghamton University. He added that these artifacts are right under their feet. Armed with new evidence, researchers plan to continue to study the remnants of old structures.

Учёные записывают подземные показания на Алькатрасе
Scientists are recording underground testimony on Alcatraz

Archaeologists began exploring most of the 19th century fortress buried under existing prison buildings in 2014. During work on the territory of Alcatraz, scientists were surprised by the concrete reinforcement of some earthen tunnels, despite the fact that concrete was not used in construction at that time.

“It is interesting that at that time they did not even produce cement in the United States,” said Tanya Vattenburg Comas from California State University Chico. “It was probably cement brought in barrels from Europe. Finding it on a mid-19th century battery was a big surprise.”

1868 году
Fort Alcatraz (1868)

During the American Civil War, Alcatraz Island served as a military base that backed supporters of the West Coast Confederation. The defenses were built in the mid-1850s and included barracks and gun batteries. While most of the country was drawn into a bloody battle, Alcatraz’s fortress remained calm.

In addition, Fort Alcatraz was used as the official military prison of the west coast. The first prisoners from the federal penitentiary system began arriving in the 1930s, and the last were evicted in 1963. On an island with a high level of security, famous prisoners were serving sentences: Al Capone, George “machine gunner” Kelly, Whitey Bulger.