Why didn’t Leonardo da Vinci finish the Mona Lisa?

Scientists have found the cause of the damage to the artist's hand

Reading time 6 minutes

Leonardo da Vinci could damage the nerve in the fall, which prevented him from drawing in the last years of life, suggest Italian doctors. They diagnosed the artist with elbow paralysis, analyzing the image of his right hand in two works.

Previously, it was assumed that the damage to Leonardo’s hand caused a stroke. But in the study published in the journal of the Royal medical society, doctors made an alternative assumption. The researchers believe that one of the hands of da Vinci began to function poorly due to nerve damage. This meant that he could no longer hold the palette and brush in his right hand.

Leonardo da Vinci, who lived from 1452-1519, was an artist and inventor whose talents spanned architecture, anatomy, engineering and sculpture, as well as painting. But experts have long argued to what extent Leonardo was Ambidextrous. And, although he was more skilled in drawing with his left hand, it is believed that he drew only with his right. A separate study published last month confirmed this theory.

Experts have confirmed that the 500-year-old engraving – a rare image of Leonardo da Vinci

To learn more about what caused Leonardo’s injury, the authors of the research published in the journal of the Royal medical society studied a number of historical artifacts. Among them was an engraving by Marcantonio Raimondi in 1505 depicting a man playing the lyre da braccio – a stringed instrument of The Renaissance. The man in the print was recently identified as Leonardo da Vinci. This suggests that at this time he made good use of both hands, the researchers said.

Scientists have analyzed and portrait of an elderly Leonardo, written by Giovanni Ambrogio Figino, an artist who worked in Milan. According to the analysis, the picture of the Renaissance man held his right hand in a «hard, compressed position».

Sketch of Leonardo da Vinci with the image of his «clawed hand»

Dr. Davide Lazzeri, a specialist in plastic reconstructive and aesthetic surgery at the Villa Salaria clinic in Rome, who led the analysis, said: «Instead of portraying the typical clenched arm observed in post-stroke muscle spasticity (a state of increased muscle tone), the picture offers an alternative diagnosis, such as elbow paralysis, commonly known as clawed arm».

The ulnar nerve passes from the shoulder to the little finger and controls almost all of the internal muscles of the arm, which allow fine motor skills to work, so, a fall could cause shoulder injury, leading to paralysis or weakness.

Dr. Lazzery added that there are no reports of other motor disorders, which further confirms that it is unlikely that the stroke was the cause of damage to Leonardo’s hand.

Another evidence confirming the alternative version is a diary entry of one of Leonardo’s students about a visit to the artist’s house in 1517. The disciple Antonio de Beatis wrote: «you can Not expect better work from him, since his right hand is paralyzed. And although Messer Leonardo can no longer draw with his inherent sweetness, he can still create and teach others».

Experts believe that Leonardo da Vinci could leave the «Mona Lisa» unfinished due to injury of his right hand

«It would be interesting to examine Leonardo’s skeleton to verify at least the presence of fractures or injuries», – said Lazzeri.

The study may continue work on why Leonardo did not finish a number of paintings, including his portrait of the Mona Lisa.

«Five centuries after his death, during which thousands of scientists read his works, discussed his discoveries and explored his life from all points of view, there is still a lot that we need to learn about Leonardo da Vinci, a man of the Renaissance», – said Lazzery.

Around the World with Dior: cruise shows from French Fashion House

A resort show of the brand took place in Marrakech on April 29

Reading time 4 minutes

The place of rendezvous for celebrity, VIP guests, stylists, journalists and other representatives of the fashion industry was the Palace of El-Badi, built in 1578. Models demonstrated clothing with ethnic music. The pond, lined with candles, was the setting for the podium. Fabrics with waxed prints, which incorporate the cultural code of African countries, have become the leitmotif of the show.

The destination for the third show with Maria Grazia Chiuri was not chosen by chance. 2020 collection is an homage to the work to Yves Saint Laurent, who drew inspiration in Morocco from the time of his debut work for the home.

Demonstration of resort clothing in Marrakech – this is not the first show of the brand abroad. Cruise collections more than once traveled beyond the borders of their native Paris for the 72-year history of the brand. In 1948, a year after the foundation of the house, Christian Dior launched the Resort and Spring project, the Russian media called it a cruise collection. Potential clients of the campaign are American women who like to spend their winter holidays on warm islands.

“If you travel a lot, you need compact clothes — lightweight and unshakable, which does not take up much space in a suitcase,” Christian Dior wrote in his “Little Fashion Dictionary”.

Christian Dior Resort 2007 in the time of John Galliano

John Galliano revived the tradition of cruise shows. The show took place in New York in 2006, after which Resort-collections became an obligatory part of the fashionable Dior calendar. Since then, the show has been demonstrated twice in New York in 2007 and 2008. The cruise collection visited Shanghai in 2009. In May 2015, Villa Palais Bulles, a futuristic sculpted mansion of the Hungarian architect Antti Lovag, was chosen as the showcase for the cruise collection. This mansion resembles a stretched mass of terracotta colored bubbles. Then Christian Dior fans were invited to the residence of the Dukes of Marlborough Blenheim Palace, near Oxford, where in 1954 Christian Dior made a show of the winter collection to raise funds for the British branch of the Red Cross.

Dior cruise collection at the Palais Bulles Villa

Maria Grazia Chiuri left the post of Valentino creative director and took the place of Raf Simons who left Dior in 2016. Her first cruise collection 2017 was held in the California desert, and the next one took the audience to the equestrian Palace of Chantilly, built by architect IV Auber. This estate played a big role in the history of the fashion house, Christian Dior called a bright symbol of the French savoir-vivre (“the art of living”).

Show of Dior cruise collection in the California desert

 

Stunning masterpieces of miniature art

Tiny creations of Salavat Fidai, Edward Kazaryan and Hasan Kale

Reading time 4 minutes

Pencils are familiar to everyone from childhood; we draw or write something with them. But Salavat Fidai found another use for this writing instrument.

The artist created this work from the 4th time. The photo is published in the official Instagram account.

Salavat Fidai has long been interested in miniature art, performing reproductions of famous paintings on a variety of surfaces: matchboxes, pumpkin seeds and rice grains.

Some of the reproductions of Salavat went to the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam.

In 2014, he discovered another material for his little masterpieces – pencil lead. His works became popular, and Salavat Fidai, with the help of his fans, released an illustrated album in 2016. Some parts of this book can be found in the public domain.

Backgammon from black obsidian and gold in rice grain. Edward Kazaryan.

Edward Kazaryan is a famous Soviet microminiature mechanic. He became famous for his ability to work with the smallest details. His works were kept by Stalin, Khrushchev, Queen Elizabeth. Among the miniature masterpieces of Kazaryan you can find a poppy seed, which depicts a scene with Gulliver in the country of Lilliputians, figurines of football players from black obsidian inside a polished human hair, a real violin and a bow inside a needle ear. Some of his works are moving: Charlie Chaplin is twisting a cane. Ten works of the miniaturist are listed in the Guinness Book of Records.

There have been tragic incidents in his work. Once, a pigeon pecked up a drying grain of rice, on which the master, by request of the Louvre, painted a copy of Aivazovsky’s painting The Ninth Wave. So three months of hard work and one million dollars were spent – that was the price of the order.

Edward Kazaryan was a professional musician. He played a concert together with the Yerevan Symphony Orchestra with the help of one of his miniature violins.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hasan Kale chose food as a canvas for his masterpieces. The artist draws mosques and landscapes on chocolate drops, nuts, sugar and raw pasta.

With such an original bouquet, the miniaturist artist congratulated all the women on his Facebook page.
With such an original bouquet, the miniaturist artist congratulated all the women on his Facebook page.

Hasan Kale is an active user of Facebook and puts his work on public display.

A miniature created using a sugar cube.

How we will remember Karl Lagerfeld

Best models and shows of the legendary couturier

Reading time 5 minutes

Karl Lagerfeld died on the age of 86 in Paris on February, 19. He suffered from pancreatic cancer, and in recent weeks he felt a near death.

Lagerfeld was the world famous couturier, director of the fashion house Chanel, and he wore the title of Charlemagne in the fashion industry. In 1963, he created clothes for four brands: Chloe, Krizia, Charles Jourdan, Fendi. And in 1983 he headed the fashion house of Chanel, which at that time was going through a difficult period. He reworked the heritage of the legendary fashion house, retaining the special charm of Coco Chanel.

Shows of the fashion Kaiser always ended with a bright output of models in a wedding image. Every year, the Lagerfeld muses in their wedding dress went out to the hand with the designer. One of such shows is the presentation of the collection Chanel autumn-winter 1995-1996. Then the Kaiser accompanied at once three supermodels of the century: Helen Christensen, Claudia Schiffer and Nadya Auermann.

Legendary couturier and supermodels of the 90s at the Chanel show
Legendary couturier and supermodels of the 90s at the Chanel show

In 2004, the black-skinned model Alek Vek came to the podium with Lagerfeld. She defiled at the fashion show of the Chanel spring-summer collection.

Karl Lagerfeld and model Alek Vek at the Chanel show

In 2014, the line of the same season presented Cara Delevingne. Together with the fashion designer and top model, the Kaiser godson, Hudson Kroenig, also came out. Lagerfeld considered the boy his talisman and frequently went out to the podium with him.

Karl Lagerfeld with his godson and model Carol Delevingne

A year later, an extraordinary wedding image was presented by another muse of the designer – Kendall Jenner. Fashion industry was just beginning to recognize the young model. Jenner presented the 2015 Chanel Fall Couture collection.

Karl Lagerfeld and the rising star Kendall Jenner

One of the youngest models of Karl Lagerfeld was Lilly-Rose Depp, daughter of Vanessa Paradis. In the 1990s, Paradis worked closely with Chanel, and in 2017 her daughter defiled at the fashion show. Although the height of the girl is much lower than the standard, it was her honor to close the show. She walked along the runway with the maestro in a soft pink dress with layered frill at the hem.

Karl Lagerfeld and Vanessa Paradis daughter- Lily-Rose Depp

The king of the fashion industry admired many models. Among them: Claudia Schiffer, Diana Kruger, Stella Tenannt, Karol Bouquet. But the most important muse of the designer was Choupett – a cat of Burmese breed. Couturier admitted that his favorite is the heiress of his property. “She is the center of the world,” – said Lagerfeld about his cat.

Karl Lagerfeld with his lovely cat Choupett

From Aristotle to Robert Mackey

What to read for an aspiring screenwriter

Reading time 4 minutes

Robert McKee – “Story”

Роберт Макки "История на миллион долларов"

Robert McKee is one of the most sought after scriptwriters in the world. He has published several books and regularly holds seminars for those who want to learn storytelling. Students of his seminars participated in the creation of such films and TV series as Breaking Bad, Game of Thrones, The Wolf of Wall Street and others. 

The book “Story” as fully as possible reveals how to tell a story so that it finds its viewer. “History” is written in simple and accessible language, so it is not necessary to know the basics of drama: it will be useful for both beginners and followers.

Blake Snyder – “Save The Cat! The Last Book on Screenwriting You’ll Ever Need”

 

Блейк Снайдер "Спасите котика!"
Blake Snyder “Save the Cat!”

Blake Snyder was a screenwriter, producer, and storytelling consultant. He created scripts and earned money by selling them.

 

The book “Save the cat!” is in first place in the top of the Amazon site in the “movie scripts” section and is very popular among screenwriters around the world. It is read in one breath. Blake Snyder describes the techniques for creating a memorable and vivid history, each item is illustrated clearly, this is a practical guide that will answer the most important questions.

The screenwriter offers his own classification of genres and his recipe for creating a potential masterpiece consisting of 15 ingredients.

Aristotle – “Poetics”

Аристотель — древнегреческий философ, автор трактата "Поэтика"
Aristotle – the ancient Greek philosopher, author of the treatise “Poetics”

The study of stories and characters began much earlier than the cinema era. Aristotle’s Poetics treatise was written in 335 BC, it reveals the fundamentals and proposes a theory of drama. The ancient Greek philosopher defines poetics as a whole, speaks about the main techniques of the tragedy, gives the character traits that the heroes of each story should possess.

“Poetics” and other works of Aristotle – an important stage in the study and classification of theories of drama.

 

Initially, the work consisted of two parts: the first reveals the principles and parts of the tragedy, the second – the comedy. Unfortunately, the second part did not reach modern readers.

Incident in Paris

Picture of Banksy was stolen from the Bataclan

Reading time 4 minutes

The work of British artist Banksy, painted as a tribute to the victims of the terrorist attack in 2015, was stolen from the Bataclan music hall in Paris. The work, which depicts a young woman with a mournful face, was cut and removed from one of the emergency doors of the concert venue.

вап
Banksy’s picture is estimated to be worth millions

The police are trying to find the thieves and return the work of art, which is approximately estimated to cost millions of euros. The alarm inside the Bataclan reportedly rang around 4: 25 am. Police found a screwdriver near the scene of the painting theft. Also, law enforcement agencies found the witness who reported that had seen the white truck and three suspicious people near a crime scene.

The attack in Bataclan was the bloodiest of a series of coordinated terrorist attacks in Paris. In November 2015, 90 people were killed when gunmen attacked spectators during a rock concert.

После теракта парижане приносили к стенам Батаклана цветы в дань памяти погибшим
After the attack Parisians brought flowers to the walls of Bataklan in tribute to the memory of the dead

Francois Vaulin, mayor of the 11th district of Paris, said: “this silhouette was made by the artist for free. It was an altruistic gesture, a tribute to the memory of the victims of the terrorist attack and their loved ones, and I am very sad that people stole the picture, not understanding what it represents.”

The leadership of Bataclan expressed its deep indignation on Twitter that they had taken away the symbol of memory belonging to all: local residents, Parisians, citizens of the world. “The painting had significance in this particular place, so we decided to keep it there so that it would be accessible to everyone.”

Banksy’s picture appeared on one of the garages in the UK

Over the past decade, the art of Banksy has become extremely popular and in demand. One of his works, which appeared in one of the garages in the UK, was recently sold for a “six-figure amount.”

Who is Banksy

Banksy is a popular British graffiti artist. He keeps his identity a secret.

His graffiti paintings appear in public places, for example, on the walls of buildings. His work is distinguished by a special style that people can easily recognize.

In the early 1990s, he began painting trains and walls in his hometown of Bristol. In the 2000s, his work went beyond Bristol and soon became a significant phenomenon of world culture.

Earlier in January 2018 graffiti was found at the station of the monorail in Tokyo. The pattern has similarities with the well-known picture of Banksy’s “Rat-umbrella”, he also depicts a rat-parachutist with an umbrella.

The greatest films of all times

The best black and white films for winter evenings

Reading time 6 minutes

During cold winter nights you can make mulled wine, dive into a blanket, and watch black and white movies. Those which characters of Sarah Jessica Parker and Chris Noth were watching in the second part of Sex in the City. true masterpieces keep thrilling and never get old. Their black-and-white aesthetics as well as acting still fascinate people. 

All About Eve (1950)

Director: Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Plot: the competition between a Broadway legend Margo Channing (Bette Davis) and her fan, an amateur actress Eve Harrington (Anne Baxter). The audience can also see Marilyn Monroe in a small episodic role. For Marilyn it is one of the first roles in her career. The movie won six Academy Awards, including Best Film from any Source award. Half a century later, an eccentric Spanish director Pedro Almodóvar creates an allusion of the story in his All About My Mother film.

A shot from Everything abot Eve
A Streetcar Named Desire (1951)

Director: Elia Kazan
It is an adaptation of Tennessee Williams‘s play of the same name which brings us to poor districts of New Orleans. An aging, but still beautiful Blanche DuBois (Vivien Leigh) and her sister’s husband Stanley Kowalski (Marlon Brando) face the contradictions. The film won a lot of awards, including Vivien’s Academy Award nomination for Best Actress which, according to the actress led her to madness.

Трамвай «Желание»
Vivien Leigh and Marlon Brando in A Streetcar Named Desire
Roman Holiday (1953)

Director: William Wyler
It is a light romantic comedy about a princess and an American journalist which touches more than one generation. The narrative is very simple, it tells the well-known story of love between a princess and a commoner. Audrey Hepburn won an Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance. It happened eight years prior her most recognizable role of Holly Golightly in Breakfast at Tiffany’s film.

Римские каникулы
Audrey Hepburn and  Gregory Peck in Roman Holiday
Some Like It Hot (1959)

Director: Billy Wilder
The film starring Marilyn Monroe, Tony Curtis, and Jack Lemmon which is often being called the best comedy in the movie history. The story of adventurers, hiding from gangsters, touring with the women’s orchestra, is known all over the world. The film won Academy Awards and a Golden Globe Award and became a leading film not only in the US, but also in USSR.

Мэрилин Монро
Marilyn Monroe as Sugar Kane
Psycho (1960)

Director: Alfred Hitchcock
Those, who love being titillated, can watch a psychological horror film by Hitchcock. The film is construed as one of the key movies of all times. The principles of showing the subconscious fear of the characters, used by the director, influenced all subsequent horror films.

Психо
Anthony Perkins as Norman Bates
Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966)

Director: Mike Nichols
Elizabeth Taylor confessed in her memoirs that the role of Martha was the best in her career because during the whole shooting process she was Acting. A family drama about a relationship between loving and hating each other spouses caused a resonance among viewers and critics. The film built on conflicts and cursing which realistically shows family relationships. The film won five American Academy Awards, including one for Best Actress.

A frame from Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? 
Manhattan (1979)

Director: Woody Allen
One of the most popular Woody Allen’s film takes the viewer to his favorite city. Passions, doubts, and contradictions of the characters are imbued with the rhythm of Manhattan. Viewers, critics, and new Yorkers themselves agree that the director has created a cinematic anthem of the city.

Манхэттен
According to critics, Manhattan is the best Allen’s film

A video game as a piece of art

Can games ever rise in aesthetic and intellectual levels?

Reading time 8 minutes

From the ancient times people strive for expressing themselves via art, inventing more and more tools for this. Literature, fine arts, statuary, architecture, music, photography, cinema – all of these are media created in a result of technological progress and a drive for sharing new ideas.

Video games is a form of creativity as well, however, they are not construed as a real art yet. Although, a couple of examples can make people doubt in this statement.

Journey

Speaking of aesthetic qualities and audiovisual sequence of video games, we should look a little closer at Journey by thatgamecompany.

"Захватывающее и медитативное приключение" - так часто описывают Journey
An exciting and meditative adventure is a common description for Journey

Journey tells us a story about a nameless figure in a vast desert, traveling towards a mountain in the distance where he expects to find something that he needs for some reason. The game lacks any kind of speech or dialogue what creates space for  personal interpretation of the story. The game never tells anything directly, but the surrounding world gradually reveals the veil of secrecy around the place and our main character. All of these creates a unique magic atmosphere of journey where adventures await at every turn.

At the same time a meditative and exciting game Journey has conquered the hearts of most people and earned the recognition of critics.

Cuphead

Another example of a video game as an audiovisual piece of art is Cuphead by Studio MDHR Corp.

Even a promo cover sends us to the 1930s

A visual style of Max Fleischer’s animation of the 1930s, hand-drawn characters and backgrounds, and an unpretentious story about a cupheaded boy attach the feeling of an interactive cartoon to this game.

Cuphead is a synthesis of old-school creative techniques and up-to-date technologies. The game has been fully appreciated by players as well as by critics.

Stanley Parable

Not all of the games can boast a vivid and memorable visual image like previous ones. But the main distinctive feature of Stanley Parable game is its story, or, to be more precise, the absence of it.  

На мониторе больше нет указаний, и Стенли отправляется в путь
The main screen of Stanley Parable

This game can be colloquially called a walking simulator. At first sight, the game is pretty obvious: nothing interesting is happening and the character can only wander around and interact with a short amount of objects. Nevertheless, this kind of games can be very surprising when it comes to a unique way of storytelling.

Stanley Parable’s main character is clearly Stanley, an ordinary office worker who does not have anything to do but pushing the buttons on his monitor. However, one day all his colleagues disappear and the flox of commands on his screen stops.

During the course of the game, speechless Stanley is being guided by a storyteller who voices over all character’s moves and gives him hints of what to do next. The player can either listen to the invisible narrator or disobey his suggestions, on which the guide will immediately react. The game encourages the players initiative to make their own decisions, giving them a control over situations and total freedom. To be completely honest, the reality is that every single step is already planned by creators of the game, but it only means the games plays chicken with people pretty well.

This is the Adventure Line at the beginning of the game. Although, you don’t have to follow it

Stanley Parable is hardly a first experiment with an interactive form of narrative, but it is one of the most successful and highly rated ones in this peculiar genre.

Papers, Please

Even the most seemingly boring professions turn inside out in video games. For instance, the Papers, Please game tells the story of a typical border crossing immigration officer.

Even by looking at logo of the game, we can find a lot of common features

The main character is an immigration officer in the fictional dystopian country of Arstotzka. His motivation is pretty simple: the more people he checks the higher his salary is. Every day the government introduces new rules and changes the list of necessary documents for which you have to closely monitor. If you make too many mistakes during checking you will get a fine.

Very soon there is going to be too many documents that it will be impossible not to miss something

Looking through the documents, the player gradually finds out more and more about Arstotzka and the surrounding world. Although, the work at border crossing post is not that easy as it might seem at first. One character forgets his or her documents at home, or has an important operation, but does not have a necessary pass, another might have all required documents, but he is a suspect in following people he wants to kill. These and many other moral dilemmas give Papers, Please a new depth.   

What can be more lame that checking documents the whole day? But this dark, Kafkaian game immerses players into the story and does not let go until the very end.

There should be mentioned much more fascinating projects which go beyond these usual “shooters” and  “puzzles”.  But, as with any work of art, you better play these games once instead of hearing about them a hundred times.

 

Terribly interesting

Why we love horrors

Reading time 4 minutes

Psychologists, sociologists and film critics were studying this paradox from various perspectives. However, they couldn’t definitely answer the question why it happened like that. Nevertheless, they elaborated several theories explaining this phenomenon.

Theory 1. Fire with fire

A scene from the "Anabelle" (2014)
A scene from the «Anabelle», 2014

Fear is a protective reaction of any living being, which aids him to survive. However, if fear is not controlled or suppressed, it turns into the phobia. As a rule, phobia is connected to something unknown and unexplainable. Here one can remember plots of traditional horror movies. Ghosts, devils, damnations or maniacs, insane and cannibals – all of them are included into any horror and serve a particular function of phobia trigger. In other words, focal elements of a scary movie are external impeti which bring on fear. As the psychiatrist Roman Suleymanov said, the best way to overcome fear is to experience it. Therefore, horror movies give people an opportunity to tackle with their anxiety, even unconscious.

Theory 2. The cat’s out of the bag

A scene from the «Friday the 13th», 2009

A human is not only a social being but also biological one. It’s typical for him a tendency to violence which is explained by natural necessity to defend from enemies. Aggressive behaviour, as filosofer O.Spengler and zoophychologist K. Lorenc guess, helped a person to survive in the evolution process. However, nowadays people have no necessity to kill. Besides, harsh social boundaries restrict and suppress aggressive actions. Yet human nature works like that: it is complicated to suppress aggression, it is much easier to take it out. Subconsciously a spectator can associate himself to a killer. In that case scary movies become a «vaccine» against violence. They simulate situations which will hardly appear in reality, and, besides, they enable a person to «try on» a maniac role.

Theory 3. Just for fun

A scene from the "Saw 7" (2010)
A scene from the «Saw 7», 2010

From science perspective, during the strong emotional troubles human brain oozes powerful neuromediators: oxytocin and dopamine – hormones requesting for the happiness and pleasure feelings. Horror movies is a peculiar emotional shock for the brain. That’s why a person might feel satisfaction after watching a scary film. Despite it sounds paradoxically, in that case horror movies is a kind of ride which is more likely to cheer you up then to scary.

Gay pigeons, bedbugs with middle age crisis, and other characters

Outstanding animation series for adults which became popular over the past five years

Reading time 5 minutes

Each year there appear more and more animation series with 18+ rating, discussing such themes as politics, relationships, sex, violence and etcetera. And these animated fictions are drastically different from good old Disney movies. The well-known The Simpsons, Family Guy, South Park, Futurama, American Dad! started releasing in early 2000s. Furthermore, over the past five years there were created new adult series, some of which are claiming to be construed as iconic.

2013: Rick and Morty – the new wave of adult cartoons

«Science makes sense, family doesn’t»

The story (short parody film of Back to the Future) revolves around the adventures of an ordinary boy Morty Smith and his grandfather Rich, the crazy scientist, who possesses the cutting-edge technologies for space travel.

Shortly after its release, Rick and Morty became a new trending cartoon for adults along with epochal The Simpsons. The series is still one of the highest cartoons in ranking (97% on RottenTomatoes) and keeps pleasing the fans with new episodes about politics, science, and family relationship.

2014: Bojack Horseman – the reality of the American dream

«Don’t look back. You’re not going that way»

Meet  BoJack Horseman – the washed-up sitcom star of the 1990s – 20 years later. Now he lives in Hollywood, drinks whisky, and plans his big return to celebrity relevance by writing memoirs.

The show was warmly welcomed by critics as well as by the audience for its realism: the main character deals with depression, psychological traumas, alcoholism, drugs addiction, self-deterioration – and all of these is peppered with black humor and sarcasm making fun of our society.

2016: Animals.we behave like beasts

«Unexpected tales of urban life»

The comparison of people and animals frequently appears in culture and always does the trick of reflecting the real life with all its manifestations. In front of us is New York City – a concrete jungle the inhabitants of which are rats suffering from unrequited love, gay pigeons, and bedbugs with midlife crisis whose stories are being told in the series.

Overall, it is a very funny, slightly cynical, and extremely truthful animated fiction which may not brighten up your weekdays, but definitely will make you think.

2018: Disenchantmenta new Netflix release which did not turned out to be a disappointment

«Misadventure awaits»

The series is about an alcoholic princess Bean living in a medieval kingdom Dreamland. Obviously, the father-king wants to get his rebellious daughter married against her will. That is why Bean with the company of an elf and her destructive “personal demon” leaves the kingdom and travels the world meeting fantastic creatures and equally interesting people.

The series can be fairly called the feminine version of Bojack Horseman, but Disenchantment also has its own charm and story. Additionally, that Medieval atmosphere really helps the feeling of realism: of course, not princesses in magnificent dresses or magic creatures – but vikings, drunkards, criminals, and other tasteful attributes of middle ages.

2018: Super Drags – on the same page with social justice warriors

«Adults only, honey»

Three gay friends lead double lives as superhero drag queens, fighting crimes against the LGBT community.

The newest animated series from Netflix is actively discussed in social media: not a lot of people have seen it yet, but the idea itself is a whole reason for debates. We will find out the reaction of viewers later, but, for instance, Jason Fontelieu called the show a good sarcastic comedy, although, unfinished in terms of the narrative and made for a very limited audience.

Enjoy!