Holocaust through the prism of modernity

The story of 13-year-old Hungarian Jew Eva Heyman recreated in Instagram

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The story of the Jewish girl Eva Heyman, who died in the Auschwitz camp in 1944, was brought to live in Instagram. The creators of the project showed what would be the life of Eva if she posted on her social media everything she had been going through.  

«The Nazis conquered us»

The eva.stories project recreates the events which Eva wrote about in her diary. It consists of 70 short videos that reflect the life of a Jewish family during the war years. Everything is depicted in insta-stories format, in the profile, the authors of the project posted only a poster and a trailer. The role of Eva Heyman is played by British actress Mia Quiney.

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Eva.Stories Official Trailer

A post shared by Eva (@eva.stories) on

War first comes to Eva’s family when her cousin gets deported to Poland. After some time, the accomplices of the Nazis come to the pharmacy of the Eva’s grandfather and confiscate it in favor of the government. The decisive moment for Eva Heyman’s fate is the day when she sees the incoming Nazi army. From now on, she promises subscribers to broadcast everything that happens. The girl shows the details of life with a yellow star on her chest. In the ghetto.

Ева Хейман, жертва Холокоста
Eva Heyman is a Holocaust victim whose story served as a reminder of the tragedy

The project was sponsored by the Israeli businessman Mati Kochavi and his daughter Maya. It was launched on May 2nd, Holocaust Memorial Day. Before filming the story of Heyman, Mati and Maya Kochavi looked through about 30 diaries written by the victims of those events. But Eva’s diary stood out for its modernity and simpleness.

Злосчастная желтая звезда, которую евреи впоследствии были обязаны нашивать на наиболее заметные места своей одежды, стала самым зримым символом нацистского антисемитизма.
The Yellow star – a symbol of Nazi antisemitism, all Jews were obliged to sew it on prominent places of clothing

Before launching the eva.stories the authors widely announced the project both on street billboards and in social media. The initiative was supported by Benjamin Netanyahu, the Prime Minister of Israel. The account was also noted by different celebrities in their profiles, including the actress Gal Gadot («Wonder Woman») and the stand-up comedian Sarah Silverman. As a result, the account had around 200.000 followers before it was even launched. Now Eva’s profile has about 1.7 million subscribers.

Билборд с рекламой Instagram-аккаунта Eva.stories
The billboard advertising the Eva.stories Instagram account

The initiator and producer of the project Mati Kochavi believes that the world is beginning to forget about the terrible events of the Holocaust. That is why he created the project and invested about $5 million in it. Neither the government nor any organizations financed the creation of Eva’s profile.

Although, there are some critics on the way. Disputes in the comments under the publications in Eva’s profile do not cease. Users think that the profile is not serious enough. Critics of the project reckon that it is inappropriate to use Emoji, stickers and hashtags when it comes to the Holocaust. Many also criticize the implausibility of Eva’s modern story. For instance, how did the girl manage to charge the phone if there was no electricity in the ghetto?

According to Maya Kochavi, their team was expecting this kind of reaction as well. However, Kochavi family is convinced that they chose the best way to address the situation: the problem of antisemitism does not lose its relevance. Instagram platform was chosen for a reason: it was important to bring the issue to the younger generation.

T-Rex found new relatives

Recently discovered fossils have filled the missing link in dinosaur evolution

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Paleontologists recently announced in the scientific journal Nature Ecology & Evolution that the ferocious Tyrannosaurus Rex evolved from dinosaurs as tall as a small child.

Newly discovered dinosaur, called Suskityrannus hazelae, weighed approximately from 20 to 40 pounds. Its height reached only 90 centimeters. Tyrannosaurus Rex weighed about 9 tons and had a length of about 12 meters.

The lead author of the study, Sterling Nesbitt, a paleontologist from Virginia Tech in the US, said that the fossils of the cousin of Tyrannosaurus Rex represent one of the best examples of how a smaller family of dinosaurs evolved into monstrous superhuman.

Fossilized bones of S. hazelae, which existed about 92 million years ago on the territory of modern Western new Mexico (Photo: VIRGINIA TECH)
Fossilized bones of S. hazelae, which existed about 92 million years ago on the territory of modern Western new Mexico (Photo: VIRGINIA TECH)

«A small group of dinosaurs spawned the biggest predators we’ve ever seen», Nesbitt said.

On Monday, it was reported that Suskityrannus hazelae is an intermediate between smaller tyrannosaurs and giant, the last surviving members of the species.

«Suskityrannus is a key link between bone huge dinosaurs, such as Tyrannosaurus Rex and smaller types from which they evolved», said Steve Brusatte, a paleontologist from the University of Edinburgh. He added: «The New species shows that tyrannosaurs developed many of their characteristic features, such as a muscular skull, a wide mouth, and cushioning legs when they were still small».

The scientist shows how small a part of the skull of S. hazelae is compared to the casting of the full-size part of the jaw of a Tyrannosaurus Rex (Photo: VIRGINIA TECH)
The scientist shows how small a part of the skull of S. hazelae is compared to the casting of the full-size part of the jaw of a Tyrannosaurus Rex (Photo: VIRGINIA TECH)

It is believed that Suskityrannus hazelae existed 92 million years ago, about 20 million years before Tyrannosaurus Rex.

Nesbitt says he first discovered the incomplete skeleton of Suskityrannus hazelae in new Mexico in 1997 and another more complete specimen in 1998. But in the decades that followed, scientists weren’t sure what it was until other fossils of smaller Tyrannosaurus Rex brethren were discovered.

Nesbitt found fossils of S. hazelae in 1997 when he was a teenager (Photo: hazel wolf)

Another tiny relative of Rex, Moros the Fearless, was discovered in February and is believed to have lived 96 million years ago.

«Suskityrannus gives us an idea of the evolution of tyrannosaurs just before they took over the planet», Nesbitt said.

The report notes that Tyrannosaurus Rex roamed the earth for only 15 million years before the species was destroyed. Smaller tyrannosaurs are thought to have existed 150 million years before Tyrannosaurus Rex. Incomplete paleontological data make it difficult to determine how dinosaur species evolved during this period of time.

Although the discovery helps to understand how Tyrannosaurus Rex evolved, paleontologists say it is still unclear why small carnivorous dinosaurs evolved to become so large.

Why didn’t Leonardo da Vinci finish the Mona Lisa?

Scientists have found the cause of the damage to the artist's hand

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Leonardo da Vinci could damage the nerve in the fall, which prevented him from drawing in the last years of life, suggest Italian doctors. They diagnosed the artist with elbow paralysis, analyzing the image of his right hand in two works.

Previously, it was assumed that the damage to Leonardo’s hand caused a stroke. But in the study published in the journal of the Royal medical society, doctors made an alternative assumption. The researchers believe that one of the hands of da Vinci began to function poorly due to nerve damage. This meant that he could no longer hold the palette and brush in his right hand.

Leonardo da Vinci, who lived from 1452-1519, was an artist and inventor whose talents spanned architecture, anatomy, engineering and sculpture, as well as painting. But experts have long argued to what extent Leonardo was Ambidextrous. And, although he was more skilled in drawing with his left hand, it is believed that he drew only with his right. A separate study published last month confirmed this theory.

Experts have confirmed that the 500-year-old engraving – a rare image of Leonardo da Vinci

To learn more about what caused Leonardo’s injury, the authors of the research published in the journal of the Royal medical society studied a number of historical artifacts. Among them was an engraving by Marcantonio Raimondi in 1505 depicting a man playing the lyre da braccio – a stringed instrument of The Renaissance. The man in the print was recently identified as Leonardo da Vinci. This suggests that at this time he made good use of both hands, the researchers said.

Scientists have analyzed and portrait of an elderly Leonardo, written by Giovanni Ambrogio Figino, an artist who worked in Milan. According to the analysis, the picture of the Renaissance man held his right hand in a «hard, compressed position».

Sketch of Leonardo da Vinci with the image of his «clawed hand»

Dr. Davide Lazzeri, a specialist in plastic reconstructive and aesthetic surgery at the Villa Salaria clinic in Rome, who led the analysis, said: «Instead of portraying the typical clenched arm observed in post-stroke muscle spasticity (a state of increased muscle tone), the picture offers an alternative diagnosis, such as elbow paralysis, commonly known as clawed arm».

The ulnar nerve passes from the shoulder to the little finger and controls almost all of the internal muscles of the arm, which allow fine motor skills to work, so, a fall could cause shoulder injury, leading to paralysis or weakness.

Dr. Lazzery added that there are no reports of other motor disorders, which further confirms that it is unlikely that the stroke was the cause of damage to Leonardo’s hand.

Another evidence confirming the alternative version is a diary entry of one of Leonardo’s students about a visit to the artist’s house in 1517. The disciple Antonio de Beatis wrote: «you can Not expect better work from him, since his right hand is paralyzed. And although Messer Leonardo can no longer draw with his inherent sweetness, he can still create and teach others».

Experts believe that Leonardo da Vinci could leave the «Mona Lisa» unfinished due to injury of his right hand

«It would be interesting to examine Leonardo’s skeleton to verify at least the presence of fractures or injuries», – said Lazzeri.

The study may continue work on why Leonardo did not finish a number of paintings, including his portrait of the Mona Lisa.

«Five centuries after his death, during which thousands of scientists read his works, discussed his discoveries and explored his life from all points of view, there is still a lot that we need to learn about Leonardo da Vinci, a man of the Renaissance», – said Lazzery.

The most expensive mistakes of space engineers

How one bug in the program and confusion of meters and feet can cost millions of dollars

Reading time 6 minutes

Developers of space projects sometimes make expensive mistakes. Let’s recall the five largest engineering errors of the space era.

Rocket «Mariner 1»
Ракета «Маринер-1»
Rocket «Mariner 1». Ph: NASA

Mariner 1 is the first apparatus of the NASA’s «Mariner» project (automatic interplanetary probes designed to investigate Mars, Venus and Mercury), the launch of which was scheduled on July 22, 1962. The apparatus was supposed to fly to Venus, however, after 293 seconds it deviated from the course, and was destroyed over the Atlantic ocean. According to the official version, the programmer made a mistake while translating the handwritten formula into a computer code: he mistook the index symbol for a regular dash. As a result, the on-Board computer software perceived normal speed jumps as critical, which led to a failure. The accident could not have happened, but the device’s antenna lost contact with the guidance system on the Ground, and the program automatically moved to plan «B». The engineering error cost $18.5 million, which the New York Times called «the most expensive dash in history».

 

Space station «Skylab»
Станция «Скайлэб»
Skylab space station. Ph: NASA

Skylab is the United States orbital station launched in 1873 (the first and only one). It was designed for Earth observation, astrophysical, technological, and biomedical researchs. Before the destruction, it held three space expedition, however, due to increased solar activity, it went off the orbit in 1979. The lowering of the Skylab accelerated, and since the station did not have its own engine, it was not possible to raise it to another orbit. According to the forecasts of the mission control Center, the station was to enter the Earth’s atmosphere on July 11, 1979 and sink for 1300 kilometers in South Cape Town. But the inaccuracy in the calculations by 4% led to the fall of some wreckage of the station in Western Australia. The damage from premature destruction was estimated at $10 million.

Hubble Space Telescope
Hubble Space Telescope. Ph: NASA

Hubble was launched in 1990, but immediately there was a problem in its work: the telescope transmitted a blurred image. After checking, it turned out that edges of the telescope’s main  mirror were too flat, making the telescope «myopic». NASA scientists have developed a program for image processing and, at first glance, the problem was solved. But few months later, other problems were discovered (gyro failures, problems with solar panels and computer malfunctions), and NASA organized three space expeditions to eliminate those defects. One of them brought «glasses» for the telescope — optical correction system COSTAR. Manufacturing and delivering of «glasses» have cost NASA 49.9 million dollars, while since the beginning of telescope’s construction there were spent 6 billion dollars.

Mars Climate Orbiter
Аппарат «Mars Climate Orbiter»
Mars Climate Orbiter. Ph: NASA

Mars Climate Orbiter is an apparatus studying the Martian climate, which was launched by NASA on December 11, 1998. The main objective of the apparatus is to picture the surface of Mars and to study the dynamics of its atmosphere. Nine months later the unit arrives to the planet, turns on braking and begins to move on highly elliptical orbit. According to the calculations of engineers, the device was supposed to change the orbit to circular and to begin research two months later. However, 5 minutes after the start of braking the apparatus passed Mars and never sent any signals. After analyzing the errors, it turned out that the NASA team calculated the parameters of the decisive stage of the flight in the metric system, and the engineers of Lockheed Martin — in the British system (pound-force). As a result, the device crossed the orbit for 53 kilometers lower than required and disintegrated in the atmosphere of Mars; the loss amounted to $193.1 million.

Satellite «NOAA-19»
Спутник «NOAA-19»
Satellite«NOAA-19». Ph: NASA

The accident is not related to the software, but to ordinary sloppiness. In 2003, September 6, during the construction of the satellite, engineers have tried to move it to a horizontal position, but the device collapsed to the floor. The investigation determined that shortly before failure the technician has pulled from the truck 24 screws and has not documented it, but other staff did not check the presence of screws either. As a result, $135 million were spent to repair the satellite.

 

 

There were more of us than we thought!

A new species of human was discovered in the Philippine cave

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During excavations in the Philippines, scientists discovered bones and teeth of a presumably new species of man. Based on fragments of bones and teeth found on the island of Luzon, the researchers established that our distant relatives were just over a meter tall and had several APE-like features.

Archaeologist Armand Salvador Mijares made the first discovery in 2007. He was excavating a cave in Callao and found a finger bone. «There’s something wrong with that bone»,- he told NPR, and continued digging.

Callao caves on the island of Luzon, where scientists discovered the remains of ancient people (Photo: archaeologists of the Callao cave)

In the study published in the journal Nature, scientists describe a finding of seven teeth and six bones that belonged to at least three human individuals. They were found in the cave in 2007, 2011 and 2015. Tests on two samples determined the approximate age of the fossils which was 50 000-67 000 years. This finding is another reminder that we, Homo sapiens, are the only surviving species of our branch on the evolutionary tree.

A range of upper teeth of Homo luzonensis (Photo: archaeologists of the Callao cave)

Expert Matthew Tohiri of the University of Lakehead in thunder Bay (Ontario), says that the discovery makes the origin of man in Asia «more confusing, more complex and much more interesting».

Analysis of bones from Luzon showed that they belonged to a previously unknown link Homo of our branch of the family tree. According to the researchers, the type and shape of the bones are different from what was found earlier in the family Homo. The new species was given the name Homo luzonensis.

Toe bone belonging to Homo luzonensis (Photo: archaeologists of the Callao cave)

One of the authors of the study, Florent Detroit from the National Museum of natural history in Paris, reported that the found species of man used stone tools. Since the teeth found were small, the species most likely had a small height.

Luzonensis Homo were living in Eastern Asia about the same time as other members of the branch of Homo, including Neanderthals, their obscure Siberian cousins the denisovans and hobbits miniature from the island of Flores in Indonesia.

There is no indication that Homo luzonensis has crossed paths with any other member of the Homo group, Detroit pointed out in an email to the Associated Press. He added that some human relative had been on Luzon more than 700,000 years ago, as evidenced by the presence of stone tools and the found skeleton of a butchered rhinoceros Dating back to the same time. It could be a new species or its ancestor.

It is not clear how Homo luzonensis is related to other Homo species. The species could have originated from an earlier human ancestor, Homo erectus, who somehow crossed the sea and ended up in Luzon.

Michael Petraglia of the German max Planck Institute believes that the discovery of Luzon «shows that we still know very little about human evolution, especially in Asia». More such discoveries are likely to emerge during further work in a region that has not yet been sufficiently explored.

Why did ancient whales need hooves?

The whale that was found off the coast of South America creates riddles

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Scientists have found that a giant fossil at the age of 42.6 million years led a semi-aquatic lifestyle (it was found in marine sediments along the coast of Peru). According to the shape of the animal’s limbs, scientists can assume that it carried the weight of its four-meter body and walked on the ground. Other anatomical features, including a powerful tail and webbed feet, make it clear that the animal was able to swim well.

Fossil whale lived about 43 million years ago

“The evolution of whales is the best documented example of macroevolution from small hoofed mammals to the giants of the ocean that we know and love today,” says Dr. Travis Park from the New York Natural History Museum. “However, despite the fact that the fossils are well known at different stages, there are still questions about the routes of ancient whales – how did their population spread around the world?”

“Other findings from this time are more fragmented and less completed,” says Olivier Lambert of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, the first author of the study in Current Biology. He adds: “We think that whales fed in the aquatic environment, where it is easier to move.”

Recent evidence suggests that ancient whales could swim for several days and weeks and retain the ability to move on land.

“Although whale could swim, it still had small hooves on its upper and lower limbs. It was much better for seals to move over land, ”says Park. The sharp teeth and the long muzzle of the animal indicate that ancient whales may have fished or crustaceans.

Scientists brought in special digital devices to document discoveries (Photo: Smithsonian Institution)
Scientists brought in special digital devices to document discoveries (Photo: Smithsonian Institution)

Earlier, more ancient remains of whales, dating back 53 million years, were found in India and Pakistan. Scientists argued when and how whales appeared near the Americas. Now we can roughly set the time when the first whales crossed the South Atlantic. This movement was facilitated by the western currents and the fact that the distance between the continents was half that of today.

The last few caudal vertebrae of the skeleton are lost, so it is unclear whether the creature on the tail had a large fin. This fin allows some modern whales to reach speeds of over 48 km per hour.

The most complete skeletons help scientists figure out how animals actually looked (Photo: Smithsonian Institution)
The most complete skeletons help scientists figure out how animals actually looked (Photo: Smithsonian Institution)

According to Lambert, it is likely that the whales returned to dry land in order to produce offspring. The first fully aquatic whales date from about 41-35 million years BC and fill a niche that remained free about 66 million years ago, when the last sea reptiles died out along with land dinosaurs.

In the United States found amazing concrete fortifications

Concrete under the prison yard in Alcatraz was found when cement in America was not created

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Researchers have discovered tunnels and buildings from the time of the American Civil War, buried under the famous prison of Alcatraz Island in San Francisco, California.

под тюремным двором Алькатраса ученые обнаружили крепость, которая долго считалась разрушенной
Under the prison court of Alcatraz, scientists discovered a fortress that was long considered ruined.

Historians have long suspected that a federal prison was erected on the site of military fortifications built in the 1800s. The publication of the journal Near Surface Geophysics, describes the complex, found under the prison yard.

 

The study of the territory of the national park was conducted using ground penetrating radar and ground scanning. Under the recreation yard of the prison, researchers found traces of completely buried buildings, ammunition depots and tunnels. “These ruins are well preserved and are located close to the surface,” said Timothy de Smet, an archaeologist at Binghamton University. He added that these artifacts are right under their feet. Armed with new evidence, researchers plan to continue to study the remnants of old structures.

Учёные записывают подземные показания на Алькатрасе
Scientists are recording underground testimony on Alcatraz

Archaeologists began exploring most of the 19th century fortress buried under existing prison buildings in 2014. During work on the territory of Alcatraz, scientists were surprised by the concrete reinforcement of some earthen tunnels, despite the fact that concrete was not used in construction at that time.

“It is interesting that at that time they did not even produce cement in the United States,” said Tanya Vattenburg Comas from California State University Chico. “It was probably cement brought in barrels from Europe. Finding it on a mid-19th century battery was a big surprise.”

1868 году
Fort Alcatraz (1868)

During the American Civil War, Alcatraz Island served as a military base that backed supporters of the West Coast Confederation. The defenses were built in the mid-1850s and included barracks and gun batteries. While most of the country was drawn into a bloody battle, Alcatraz’s fortress remained calm.

In addition, Fort Alcatraz was used as the official military prison of the west coast. The first prisoners from the federal penitentiary system began arriving in the 1930s, and the last were evicted in 1963. On an island with a high level of security, famous prisoners were serving sentences: Al Capone, George “machine gunner” Kelly, Whitey Bulger.

How we will remember Karl Lagerfeld

Best models and shows of the legendary couturier

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Karl Lagerfeld died on the age of 86 in Paris on February, 19. He suffered from pancreatic cancer, and in recent weeks he felt a near death.

Lagerfeld was the world famous couturier, director of the fashion house Chanel, and he wore the title of Charlemagne in the fashion industry. In 1963, he created clothes for four brands: Chloe, Krizia, Charles Jourdan, Fendi. And in 1983 he headed the fashion house of Chanel, which at that time was going through a difficult period. He reworked the heritage of the legendary fashion house, retaining the special charm of Coco Chanel.

Shows of the fashion Kaiser always ended with a bright output of models in a wedding image. Every year, the Lagerfeld muses in their wedding dress went out to the hand with the designer. One of such shows is the presentation of the collection Chanel autumn-winter 1995-1996. Then the Kaiser accompanied at once three supermodels of the century: Helen Christensen, Claudia Schiffer and Nadya Auermann.

Legendary couturier and supermodels of the 90s at the Chanel show
Legendary couturier and supermodels of the 90s at the Chanel show

In 2004, the black-skinned model Alek Vek came to the podium with Lagerfeld. She defiled at the fashion show of the Chanel spring-summer collection.

Karl Lagerfeld and model Alek Vek at the Chanel show

In 2014, the line of the same season presented Cara Delevingne. Together with the fashion designer and top model, the Kaiser godson, Hudson Kroenig, also came out. Lagerfeld considered the boy his talisman and frequently went out to the podium with him.

Karl Lagerfeld with his godson and model Carol Delevingne

A year later, an extraordinary wedding image was presented by another muse of the designer – Kendall Jenner. Fashion industry was just beginning to recognize the young model. Jenner presented the 2015 Chanel Fall Couture collection.

Karl Lagerfeld and the rising star Kendall Jenner

One of the youngest models of Karl Lagerfeld was Lilly-Rose Depp, daughter of Vanessa Paradis. In the 1990s, Paradis worked closely with Chanel, and in 2017 her daughter defiled at the fashion show. Although the height of the girl is much lower than the standard, it was her honor to close the show. She walked along the runway with the maestro in a soft pink dress with layered frill at the hem.

Karl Lagerfeld and Vanessa Paradis daughter- Lily-Rose Depp

The king of the fashion industry admired many models. Among them: Claudia Schiffer, Diana Kruger, Stella Tenannt, Karol Bouquet. But the most important muse of the designer was Choupett – a cat of Burmese breed. Couturier admitted that his favorite is the heiress of his property. “She is the center of the world,” – said Lagerfeld about his cat.

Karl Lagerfeld with his lovely cat Choupett

Among the Egyptian mummies replenishment

A tomb with the remains of a well-to-do family is found in Minya

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The Ministry of Antiquities of Egypt reports that Egyptian archaeologists discovered a tomb with 40 mummies. According to the estimates of scientists, the finds date back to the era of Ptolemy (323-30 BC). 

Останки одной из найденных мумий
Останки одной из найденных мумий                       Фото: AFP

The embalmed remains were found in four burial chambers nine meters deep. Among the mummies 12 of them are children. Excavations were carried out at the Tuna el Göbel site in Minya , 260 kilometers south of Cairo. 

 “They are all fairly well preserved, some are wrapped in linen and decorated with demotic handwriting (in ancient Egyptian writing),” the ministry said in a statement. Some mummies are found in clay coffins and wooden sarcophagi. Fragments of colored patches were found on the turtles, which were used as burial masks. 

Археолог работает c мумией на месте археологических раскопок
Археолог работает c мумией на месте археологических раскопок                                       Фото: AFP

 “This is the first archaeological discovery, announced in 2019 after the excavations, which began in November last year. The excavations are carried out thanks to the joint work of the Ministry of Antiquities and the Research Center for Archaeological Research at Minya University, ”said Khaled al-Anani at a press conference. It was attended by the Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities Mustafa Vaziri, Egyptian Tourism Minister Rania al-Mashat, Governor Mini Kassem Hussein, professors at Minya University, as well as diplomats from more than 10 foreign countries.   

Mostafa Vaziri stated that the mummy’s identity is unknown. “We did not find names that could be written with hieroglyphs,” he said, adding that the mummies most likely belong to wealthy Egyptians.  

Участок Туна Эль-Гебель в Минье
Участок Туна Эль-Гебель в Минье                           Фото: AFP

Waziri also said that fragments of ceramics and pieces of ancient paper found at the excavation site helped the researchers determine the date of burial. According to Ahmed Ata, a professor of archeology at Minya University and a member of a joint mission, these tombs are about 2000 years old.  

The tombs of Minya, discovered during the excavations, are part of a family grave, which probably belonged to an urban well-to-do family, the ministry added.  

Archaeological excavations also found the tomb of Petosiris, the tomb of Isadora, an animal sacrifice site, a Roman cemetery, and two reliefs of King Akhenaten.  

This is not the first discovery made in Minya. In 2017, as reported by The Inquisitr, a necropolis with 17 mummies was discovered in the same area. Tuna El Gebel is also known for finding mummified animals.

The greatest films of all times

The best black and white films for winter evenings

Reading time 6 minutes

During cold winter nights you can make mulled wine, dive into a blanket, and watch black and white movies. Those which characters of Sarah Jessica Parker and Chris Noth were watching in the second part of Sex in the City. true masterpieces keep thrilling and never get old. Their black-and-white aesthetics as well as acting still fascinate people. 

All About Eve (1950)

Director: Joseph L. Mankiewicz
Plot: the competition between a Broadway legend Margo Channing (Bette Davis) and her fan, an amateur actress Eve Harrington (Anne Baxter). The audience can also see Marilyn Monroe in a small episodic role. For Marilyn it is one of the first roles in her career. The movie won six Academy Awards, including Best Film from any Source award. Half a century later, an eccentric Spanish director Pedro Almodóvar creates an allusion of the story in his All About My Mother film.

A shot from Everything abot Eve
A Streetcar Named Desire (1951)

Director: Elia Kazan
It is an adaptation of Tennessee Williams‘s play of the same name which brings us to poor districts of New Orleans. An aging, but still beautiful Blanche DuBois (Vivien Leigh) and her sister’s husband Stanley Kowalski (Marlon Brando) face the contradictions. The film won a lot of awards, including Vivien’s Academy Award nomination for Best Actress which, according to the actress led her to madness.

Трамвай «Желание»
Vivien Leigh and Marlon Brando in A Streetcar Named Desire
Roman Holiday (1953)

Director: William Wyler
It is a light romantic comedy about a princess and an American journalist which touches more than one generation. The narrative is very simple, it tells the well-known story of love between a princess and a commoner. Audrey Hepburn won an Academy Award for Best Actress for her performance. It happened eight years prior her most recognizable role of Holly Golightly in Breakfast at Tiffany’s film.

Римские каникулы
Audrey Hepburn and  Gregory Peck in Roman Holiday
Some Like It Hot (1959)

Director: Billy Wilder
The film starring Marilyn Monroe, Tony Curtis, and Jack Lemmon which is often being called the best comedy in the movie history. The story of adventurers, hiding from gangsters, touring with the women’s orchestra, is known all over the world. The film won Academy Awards and a Golden Globe Award and became a leading film not only in the US, but also in USSR.

Мэрилин Монро
Marilyn Monroe as Sugar Kane
Psycho (1960)

Director: Alfred Hitchcock
Those, who love being titillated, can watch a psychological horror film by Hitchcock. The film is construed as one of the key movies of all times. The principles of showing the subconscious fear of the characters, used by the director, influenced all subsequent horror films.

Психо
Anthony Perkins as Norman Bates
Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966)

Director: Mike Nichols
Elizabeth Taylor confessed in her memoirs that the role of Martha was the best in her career because during the whole shooting process she was Acting. A family drama about a relationship between loving and hating each other spouses caused a resonance among viewers and critics. The film built on conflicts and cursing which realistically shows family relationships. The film won five American Academy Awards, including one for Best Actress.

A frame from Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? 
Manhattan (1979)

Director: Woody Allen
One of the most popular Woody Allen’s film takes the viewer to his favorite city. Passions, doubts, and contradictions of the characters are imbued with the rhythm of Manhattan. Viewers, critics, and new Yorkers themselves agree that the director has created a cinematic anthem of the city.

Манхэттен
According to critics, Manhattan is the best Allen’s film