Fathers and sons

ВЦИОМ и Hit.Media выяснили, какую профессию россияне считают идеальной для своих детей

Reading time 7 minutes

Sorry, this text was translated with Google machine. Mistakes and misunderstandings are possible!

What happened?

All-Russia centre of public opinion studying (VTSIOM) has conducted research to identify occupations that Russians are willing to choose for their children. Respondents during the telephone interview were asked to name the sector of employment in which they would like to see their younger children and grandchildren. Hit.Media decided to conduct its own survey and find out whether the opinion of the older generation correlates with this of young people.

Views of the older generation

In the initiative Russian poll “polls-Sputnik” carried out in the form of a telephone interview on March 21-23, 2017, was attended by 1800 of the respondents who have younger children or grandchildren. The study was conducted for the first time since 2012, and the results naturally differ from those obtained five years earlier.

In the first place for Russians is still the medical field – this choice for their children tend 35% of respondents. People also want to see their offsprings in the role of lawyers (11%), teachers (11%) and, oddly enough, the military. Popularity of last response over a five-year period doubled from 6 to 13%. The five leaders also were joined by the professional workers, such as mechanic or machinist, for the variant voted by 10% of respondents, which is two and a half times more than in 2012 (4%).

More popularity is also gained by the policeman, athlete and builder. The frequency of their occurrence in the answers of respondents in comparison with 2012 grew by 5, 3 and 3% respectively. Employment in the economic sphere, on the contrary, now it seems the Russians are less promising – only 9% of respondents voted it vs. 13% in 2012. A similar fate befell the banking: only 1% of parents want to see their children and grandchildren in it now. At the same time, only 4% of respondents agreed to provide the opportunity for their children to decide for themselves – 3% less than in 2012.

MikhailovResearch Director of VTSIOM Elena Mikhailova believes that the obtained results reflect changes in attitudes to certain professions: “The measures directed on increase of level of material security and social status of the representatives of such professional groups as doctors, teachers, soldiers, the attractiveness of employment in these areas increased significantly”. The expert also notes the trend towards a humane choice of professions is potentially lucrative, which seems to the authors of the study “significant positive dynamics”.

Views of the youth

As of 20:00 March 30, 2017, Internet-uprose Hit.Media, was attended by 115 young people 16 years and above. Respondents were asked to select from a list of professions that, in their opinion, would be best for their children. The results of the survey are very different from those that were obtained during the study of VTSIOM.

The vast majority of respondents agreed that the children themselves should decide their destiny – 42% are concerned about interest more than on its formal characteristics. While another 12% pay attention to the profitability of work, putting this criterion over others. Those who accurately identified the most suitable in their opinion profession tended rather to the creative industries (25%) and computing (20%).

So highly appreciated by the respondents of VTSIOM medicine and law were not so important for young people – just 13% of respondents indicated as their preferred future profession for the child “doctor” and 6% “attorney.” Policemen also had no success – only 1% of respondents voted for the answer. Instead of protection of the rights and freedoms of citizens respondents chose employment in a business environment: 15% of young people would like to see their unborn child in the role of the entrepreneur, 8% were in favour of employment in the banking sector and 7% – in management. Also more mundane jobs were in demand only among 3% of respondents.

Review of the expert of Hit.Media
photos
Yana Fedotova, Manager analyst of HSE Career Development Centre

No wonder the polls are so different: people are of different generations, who grew up in different economies and different information field. Generation of parents, by old memory, wants to see children on prestigious, in their opinion, posts of doctors, teachers and military, but their children have very different priorities. And this is perfectly normal because economic realities make adjustments – do the remuneration of doctors or teachers in our country commensurate with the effort that they put in the work? Here the young people and make appropriate conclusions. But most importantly, felt the weight of parental expectations, young people do not want to shift this burden onto their children. It can be rejoice because just imagine how much happier would the world be like if people chose a university or place of work not because “my parents forced me”. As the saying goes, “choose a job you love and you’ll never have to work a day in your life.”

Additional information:

 

The most patriotic day

6 августа может стать Днем патриотизма

Reading time 7 minutes

Sorry, this text was translated with Google machine. Mistakes and misunderstandings are possible!

What happened?
Vladimir Aristarkhov
Vladimir Aristarkhov

The first Deputy of the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation Vladimir Aristarkhov announced that the Agency has considered the initiative to establish in Russia a Day of patriotism “worthy of attention”. This is stated in the letter addressed to the Chairman of the Duma Committee on defense Vladimir Shamanov. Aristarkhov also drew attention to possible financial constraints on the part of the budget of the country and indicated the need for further discussion of the initiative:

“The mentioned issue shall be considered as a subject to wide public comment and conduct a historical and chronological assessment of the Russian Academy of Sciences”

What’s the idea of a holiday?

The proposal to declare August, 6th as a Day of patriotism was sent in the state Duma on 14 November 2016. The author – Rahman Anshukov, President of the Association of entrepreneurs for the development of the business patriotism, “Avanti” – not only prepared the draft of the law, but also amounted to an explanatory note to justify the need for the establishment of the feast.

Rahman Anukov
Rahman Anshukov

It states that the introduction of anti-russian sanctions, the purpose of which was the violation of the economic stability of the country, has had the opposite effect. The policy of import substitution was very effective countermeasure, to unite the citizens of Russia in the struggle for economic independence, “which was a real expression of patriotism in difficult conditions of constant political and economic pressure”.

The main role in the fight against sanctions, according to Anshukov, was played by the RF presidential decree dated 6 August 2014 “On application of certain special economic measures to ensure security of the Russian Federation”. Thanks to him, “business patriots” found the strength to move forward and to resist anti-russian policy of the West:

“The Establishment of a new memorable date August 6, the anniversary of the adoption of the decree of the President of Russia, will perpetuate the manifestation of unity within the country, which helped to meet the internal growth external pressure”

Reactions

Even at the time of making proposal to establish a Day of patriotism this holiday has undergone massive criticism. Internet users have used all your sense of humor in order to beat as the title of the new “Victory day” and the purpose of its introduction:

твит1
This victory day smells like palm oil (re-write of russian song, can’t be translated)
Patriotic Day is too much though. But we can call it whether Galore Day or Healthy food Day (cabbage, turnip, whatever else is russian)
Vitaly Milonov
Vitaly Milonov

In the state Duma, however, the initiative met no resistance. Deputy Vitaly Milonov has fully supported the idea of establishing a day of patriotism, noticing that mark it is possible and without the usual foreign products:

“It used to be Australian, new Zealand, Argentinian meat, but not now. Only Voronezh, Bryansk only. Indeed, the quality is very decent”

“Patriotism Day” in other countries

The only country in which there is a public holiday with the word “patriotism” in the name, is United States. One of his first decrees Donald Trump announced the day of his inauguration – January 20 – as National day of patriotism. Special piquancy of the situation makes that in the USA even before Trump, there were two public holiday with a similar name: Patriot’s Day is celebrated on 11th November across the country in memory of the victims of the terrorist attack of 2001 and Patriot Day – April 19 in the States of Massachusetts, Wisconsin and Maine commemorating the first battles of the war of independence.

expert Opinion for the HIT-Media
Vasily Abashkin
Vasily Abashkin, senior expert, candidate of economic Sciences, HSE

“I think, to maintain national unity just one occasion. August 6, in my opinion, the date is artificial, opportunistic and politicized that nothing, no one, apart from some individuals, not associated.

Besides, if it be considered as a geopolitical response to Trump, as a flawed attempt. No value added, that is good, I do not see this”

Additional information:

 

Out with “deuce”

Глава Бурятии Вячеслав Наговицын досрочно ушел в отставку

Reading time 8 minutes

Sorry, this text was translated with Google machine. Mistakes and misunderstandings are possible!

the Head of Buryatia Vyacheslav Nagovitsyn gave the President his resignation, reports “Interfax”. Of his intention not to run for a third term, he told reporters at a press conference. “But the situation suggests that the Republic needs a change. And although my powers end only in may, I wrote a statement now,” — said Nagovitsyn. The position of head of the Republic he has held since may 2012. Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed to accept the resignation and has appointed temporarily fulfilling duties of the head of Buryatia Deputy transport Minister Alexei Tzudenova. Press Secretary Nagovitsyna called the resignation a “surprise to everybody.”

Earlier, on Sunday, February 5, “Vedomosti” said about the possible dismissal of seven heads of regions, among which were listed Vyacheslav Nagovitsyn. Note that the direct election of the heads of 14 regions will be held in 2017.

Following a friend

the day before the resignation Nagovitsyna, February 6, on early resignation was announced by the Governor of Perm region Viktor Basargin. He stressed that he considers “necessary to address to the President” with his resignation. Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a decree appointed acting head of the Moscow Department of economic policy and development Maxim Reshetnikov.

the source of the TV channel “Rain” called the reason for the resignation, the permanent inter-elite conflicts in the Perm region, which did not suit the presidential Administration. The post of Perm territory Governor Basargin has held since may 2012.

Commenting on the series of resignations, the press Secretary of the President of Russia Dmitry Peskov said that the Kremlin has a long “bench” for public office. He also said that the government does not in their choice rate to the representatives of any of the units, but chooses as a squad of young and energetic politicians.

screenshots

on Monday 12 December, the Fund “Petersburg policy” together with the holding “Minchenko consulting” have presented the rating of political survival rate governors, according to which eight chapters and regions may lose their posts. The governors were evaluated on a scale of one to five, with five being the highest. Vyacheslav Nagovitsyn in ranking is ranked “two”, and Viktor Basargin — “two plus”. At risk are the head of the Oryol and Nizhny Novgorod regions, also received “two”. In the top of the ranking by the head of the Chechen Republic Ramzan Kadyrov, President of Tatarstan Rustam Minnikhanov.

In 2015, two governors of the three, received the rating of political survival mark two, have left their positions. The rankings take into account the term of office of the governors, the economic results of the work, the image in the region, and other criteria.

the Rating of political survival
  • “five”: Rustam Minnikhanov (Tatarstan), Ramzan Kadyrov (Chechnya)
  • “five with a minus”: Alexander Drozdenko (Leningrad oblast), Alexei Dyumin (Tula oblast), Sergey Sobyanin (Moscow), Dmitry Ovsyannikov (Moscow).
  • Rating “b+”: Sholban Kara-ool (Tuva), Oleg Kozhemyako (Sakhalin oblast), Ihor Rodina (Tver region), Vladimir Yakushev (Tyumen region), Dmitry Kobylkin (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous district).
  • Rating “four”: Alexander Berdnikov (Altai Republic), Yuri Kokov (Kabardino-Balkaria), Alexei Orlov (Kalmykia), Rashid Temrezov (Karachay-Cherkessia), Sergei Gaplikov (Komi), Yegor Borisov (Sakha), Vyacheslav Bitarov (North Ossetia), Alexander Soloviev (Udmurtia), Natalia Zhdanova (Zabaykalsky Krai), Viktor Tolokonsky (Krasnoyarsk Krai), Vladimir Vladimirov (Stavropol territory), Svetlana Orlova (Vladimir oblast), Anton Alikhanov (Kaliningrad region), Anatoly Artamonov (Kaluga region), Igor Vasiliev (Kirov oblast), Alexey Kokorin (Kurgan oblast), Marina Kovtun (Murmansk region), Yury Berg (Orenburg oblast), Ivan Belozertsev (Penza region), Vasily Golubev (Rostov oblast), Alexander Nikitin (Tambov oblast), Sergey Morozov (Ulyanovsk region), Dmitri Mironov (Yaroslavl oblast), Alexander Levintal (Jewish Autonomous oblast), Roman Kopin (Chukotka Autonomous Okrug), Sergey Aksyonov (Crimea).
  • Evaluation of “b-minus”: Yunus-Bek Yevkurov (Ingushetia), Vladimir Volkov (Mordovia), Mikhail Ignatiev (Chuvashia), Vladimir Ilyukhin (Kamchatka Krai), Veniamin Kondratiev (Krasnodar region), Vyacheslav Shport (Khabarovsk Krai), Alexander Zhilkin (Astrakhan region), Evgenie Savchenko (Belgorod region), Alexander Bogomazov (Bryansk region), Alexey Gordeev (Voronezh oblast), Sergey Levchenko (Irkutsk oblast), Alexander Mikhailov (Kursk oblast), Oleg Korolev (Lipetsk oblast), Vladimir Pechyony (Magadan oblast), Igor Koshin (Nenets Autonomous Okrug).
  • assessment of the “three plus”: Alexander Karlin (Altai Krai), Vladimir Miklushevsky (Primorye), Oleg Kuvshinnikov (Vologda oblast), Sergey Sitnikov (Kostroma region), Andrey Vorobyev (Moscow oblast), Victor Nazarov (Omsk region).
  • Evaluation of three: Aslan Tkhakushinov (Adygea), Rustem Khamitov (Bashkortostan), Ramazan Abdulatipov (Dagestan), Leonid Markelov (Mari El Republic), Victor Zimin (Khakassia), Alexander Kozlov (Amur region), Igor Orlov (Arkhangelsk region), Andrey Bocharov (Volgograd oblast), Paul Skates (Ivanovo oblast), Aman Tuleyev (Kemerovo oblast), Oleg Kovalev (Ryazan oblast), Alexei Ostrovsky (Smolensk oblast), Boris Dubrovsky (Chelyabinsk oblast), Natalia Komarova (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug).
  • Evaluation of “three-minus”: Alexander Khudilainen (Karelia), Sergey Mitin (Novgorod region), Vladimir Gorodetsky (Novosibirsk oblast), Sergey Zhvachkin (Tomsk oblast), Georgy Poltavchenko (Saint-Petersburg).
  • evaluation of the “two plus”: Viktor Basargin (Perm Krai), Andrei Turchak (Pskov region), Nikolay Merkushkin (Samara oblast), Valeriy Radaev (Saratov region), Yevgeny Kuyvashev (Sverdlovsk oblast).
  • Score “two”: Vyacheslav Nagovitsyn (Buryatia), Valery Shantsev (Nizhny Novgorod region), Vadim Potomsky (Oryol oblast).
the experts

the Director of the Institute of political studies Sergei Markov specially to Hit.Media:

Sergei Markov
Sergei Markov

“In these permutations has no great political sense. Rotation of governors is slowly. If will be replaced by three governors, three months, twelve new governors per year. So, the governors will change every eight years. This is a normal routine work. Looking at the figures. Who is worse who is better.

If to speak about the role of governors in Russian politics, from the Federal point of view, it is minimal, we still have centralized power. At the same time at their level, the governors have a very strong influence on the lives of ordinary people — for example, the transfer of St. Isaac’s Cathedral in St. Petersburg sanctioned personally Poltavchenko.

as for the rumors of impending reshuffle of the governors of Karelia, Novgorod, Ryazan and other areas, they are quite real. These regions are in distress. However, it is a natural process”.

What happened after

Governor of Novgorod region Sergey Mitin, 13 Feb announced early termination of powers, reports “Interfax”. He also refused to participate in elections in 2017.

Recall that the name of Sergei Mitin appeared in “Vedomosti”.

What to read

the

 

What has «Progress» come to?

Грузовой космический корабль развалился над Тувой

Reading time 6 minutes
What happened?

On the 1st of December in the evening Russian space Agency reported about the problems with Progress MC-04 cargo vessel which had been launched from Baikonur to the International space station. The space vehicle docking with the ISS was scheduled for December 3rd. It turned out that Progress had been destroyed over the Republic of Tyva. Roscosmos reports that most of the fragments had burned in the dense atmosphere. Unburned fragments had fallen near the town of Kyzyl, which is the capital of the Republic.

What was the spacecraft to deliver?

The ship was supposed to deliver to the crew about 2.5 tonnes of cargo: fuel, water, food, medical supplies and scientific equipment. On board there were 705 kg of propellant, 50 kg of oxygen, 420 kg of water and about 1,200 kg of food and other things essential for life in space. Apart from this, the vessel was carrying a new spacesuit produced in Russia, fresh fruit for the Christmas table, the system for water and urine recovery for the Russian module and also a new greenhouse for the cultivation of various crops.

Why did “Progress” crash?

As one of the versions of the falling of the Progress MC-04 space vessel can be considered negligence in the manufacture of the third stage of Soyuz-U carrier rocket , RIA Novosti reports, with a reference to a source in the space industry.

In its turn TASS with a reference to its source reports that the state Commission investigating the crash of Progress MC-04 space vessel considers the RD-0110 engine burnout of the third stage of SoyuzU carrier rocket to be the basic version of the incident . According to the source, this could be caused by foreign particles getting into the engine or poor assembly of the engine. These are versions and the true reason of the accident is unlikely to be identified due to the lack of necessary telemetry data and the wreckage of the rocket, TASS source said.

If identification of the reasons is delayed, the launch of the Russian space vessel Progress scheduled for February 2, 2017 may be postponed, reports TASS referring to an informed source. According to it, the investigation can last for several months.

Are the fallen fragments dangerous?

Evgeny Parfenov, a leading engineer of the Department of gravitational astronomy and astrometry of the Research Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics at Tomsk state University says that the falling debris do not pose a threat to the ecological status of the area, as reported TASS. . The expert pointed out that the space vessel had been lost, not the booster. It “had long been separated and was flying by itself.” So there was not a large amount of fuel in it, only the cargot. “The rest most likely won’t fall down. There is nothing toxic in it.

Also the interlocutor of RIA Novosti noted that the area of the fallen debris was sparsely populated, the area was mountain-woody; in this regard there were no complaints about the destruction or casualties. However, the Siberian regional emergency center was tasked to monitor the situation.

What will happen to the ISS?

It’s all right. Roskosmos said that the loss of the cargo ship will not affect the usual operations of the ISS and the life of members of the crew. NASA holds the same opinion. Commonly, the station crew has enough food and everything necessary to safely live for three months if the delivery fails.

“Our astronauts and the Russian astronauts are safe aboard the station. Resources aboard the station are at a sufficient level,” as says in a NASA blog. NASA also noted that the lost goods can be replaced by a Japanese cargo spacecraft HTV-6 starting to the 9th of Dec to the ISS.

Did it happen with Progress before?

The previous accident occurred during the launch of Progress on 28th of April 2015. Then the ship ceased to transmit telemetry and moved to the uncontrolled rotation. On the 8th of May uncontrollably de-orbited and burned in the dense atmosphere, fragments of the ship falling into the Pacific Ocean.

The reason for the accident was abnormal separation of the third stage of the carrier rocket and spacecraft. Defective assembly of RD-0110 was the cause of the fall of Progress M- 12M in August 2011. It was the first crash of Progress. The reason was the blockage of fuel feed line. This manufacturing defect was declared accidental.

On 25th of June 1997 while the redocking of Progress M-34 it crashed into Spektr module of Mir space station, which led to damage to the solar panels and depressurizing of the module. Progresses in various versions have been flying to the ISS since 2000, they have been launched more than 60 times.

Read more
    • Lost fourth “truck” for the ISS in two years. The astronauts run out of food? – article “Meduza”.

he returned To Russia – Who is to blame for the fall of “Progress” and why this is an indictment of the space industry – article “Lenta.ru”.

 

Four Losing Situations

Как Россия может остаться без углеводородных козырей

Reading time 8 minutes
Director of the Center for industrial markets and business strategies ISRE Alexey Berezna presented stress scenarios for the Russian energy on 23 November at the round table at HSE (National Research University Higher School of Economics).

“The collapse in oil prices”

This scenario is being realized in the present moment. The reasons for more than triple collapse in oil prices are the development of shale oil production in the United States and the widespread implementation of energy saving technologies in developed and developing countries. How will these events affect the Russian economy? They will cause increase in the budget deficit, accelerate inflation and will lead to the freezing of large projects and reduce the stability of the leading Russian oil companies.

“Gas abundance”

The scenario presupposes a sharp increase in the supply of gas to the world market. It can be caused by the spread of the shale technologies of gas production, increase gas recovery and development of the inexhaustible resources of methane from gas hydrate deposits. (Gas hydrates are fossil crystalline compounds of water and gas located mainly in the permafrost zone). For Russia such a scenario would mean a loss of its position in the European natural gas market, the drop in its exports and in this regard the loss of a significant part of budget revenues.

“Total decarbonisation”

Cost reduction in technologies of wind and solar power production and transition to mass use of vehicles running on alternative fuels may lead to the implementation of this scenario. “Total decarbonisation” will hit Russian oil and gas exports, and will also lead to dependence on imports of equipment for alternative energy production.

“The hydrogen economy”

The development of this scenario is due to the large-scale implementation of technologies for the production of hydrogen from water or biomass on an industrial scale and at a low cost. In this case, Russia also faces a loss of its position in the global oil and gas markets and will be forced to import equipment to produce hydrogen.

These scenarios are not a sentence. What should be done to resist their development and prevent the possible consequences?

Valentin Parmon, scientific Director of the Institute of catalysis SB RAS

All energy crises were caused by political reasons. Unforeseen political factors have also changed the situation in the energy sector. In the next 20 years the dominant role in the energy sector will belong to fossil fuels. At the same time it is necessary to develop renewable energy sources, plant raw material should be one of the main resources.

Igor Lobovsky, President of the nonprofit partnership “global energy”

The fuel sources will lead position till 40-50ies. Today the agiotage around alternative energy sources is caused not by a real mass transition on their use but by the growth from virtually zero level. The share of clean energy at the moment is approximately 6.2%. We need technological breakthroughs to challenge traditional sources of energy.

The round table at HSE was called Revolutionary Technologies of Clean Energy, yet, it was not so much about the energy technologies of the future but about the obstacles to their development and how to overcome these obstacles.

What is «clean» energy?

Clean energy is produced with renewable sources and it does not pollute the environment. Clean, alternative or green energy can be produced using wind, solar, water (hydropower), the forces of tides, waves, evaporation of water (geothermal energy) and biofuels. Today green energy is rapidly gaining popularity. It shows especially a rapid growth in USA, EU, China and Japan. The governments of these countries are against traditional energy sources, because emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases could lead to climate warming. The main method of dealing with global warming at the moment is the development of nuclear and renewable energy.

What hinders the advance of clean energy?

Researchers from HSE point out three main problems. The first and the key one is the high cost of equipment for energy storage. Solar and wind farms will not be able to receive a big share in the electric power balance if the energy output is unsteady and unpredictable. The second problem is the need to create from scratch an extensive network of fueling and charging stations. Also an obstacle is the resistance from traditional energy companies to smart energy technology, when users throughout one day can not only buy energy, but also to sell it to the network using their own mini-power plants. The managing Director of “ASIA RENEWABLES” William Il Yang Byun identified another problem at the roundtable: according to his words, the investment in green energy is small despite its apparent attractiveness. Advisor of the Secretary-General of the United Nations on climate change Rae Kwon Chung noted that the problem of investments in the alternative energy sector must be addressed by attracting both private and by public investment.
Government policy should be carried out consistently, according to experts, it is very important to steer energy sector by methods of tax regulation.

Russian energy sector has a chance to stay afloat with the help of the active implementation of alternative energy sources. Possible options include hot spring geothermal energy and hot dry rock geothermal energy.

Hot spring geothermal energy

This kind of energy is widely used in Iceland: the hot springs produce 25% of all energy in the country. The share of traditional fuels accounts for only 0.5%. The Icelandic winner of the Global Energy award Thorsteinn Ingi Sigfusson said that his country’s experience can be applied also in Russia. For example, on the Kamchatka Peninsula, energy from hot springs can provide all the needs of the region. According to experts, the development of hot spring geothermal energy in Russia will allow in 15-20 years to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels such as petroleum and its derivatives by almost one third.

Hot dry rock geothermal energy

The temperature rises by about 3 degrees every 100 meters down in the Earth’s interior. To get energy from this source it is possible to drill two deep wells, then to pour cold water in one of them and to get steam on the other. This method of obtaining energy is still in the testing stage but there is evidence of positive results.

Roundtable participants:

LEONID GOKHBERG, First Vice-Rector at National Research University Higher School of Economics
IGOR LOBOVSKY, President of the “Global Energy” Non-Profit Partnership
ILYA KUZMINOV, Leading Expert of the HSE ISSEK Foresight Centre
ALEXEY BEREZNOY, Director of the HSE ISSEK Centre for Industrial Market Studies and
WILLIAM IL YOUNG BYUN, Managing Director ASIA RENEWABLES, member of the International “Global Energy” Award Committee (Singapore)
VALENTIN PARMON, Director and Research Advisor at the Institute of Catalysis under the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, “Global Energy” 2016 Laureate
KLAUS RIEDLE, Board member of the Association of German Engineers (VDI-GEU), “Global Energy” Laureate 2005 (Germany)
THORSTEINN INGI SIGFUSSON, General Director of the Iceland Innovation Center, “Global Energy” 2007 Laureate (Iceland)
RAE KWON CHUNG, Principal Advisor on Climate Change, Executive Office of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, member of the International “Global Energy” Award Committee, contributor to the award of IPCC Nobel Peace Prize 2007 (South Korea)