Great artists – truth or myth?

Dispelling myths about 5 great painters

Reading time 6 minutes

Art of the turn of XIX-XX centuries – what is it? Great? Breakthrough? Unexpected? Undoubtedly. But the word «different» better describes the art of this period.

The second half of the 19th and 20th centuries gave us many great artists and genres. And individual masters have become tightly associated with their directions in art. Does no one doubts that Kazimir Malevich – Suprematist, and Auguste Renoir – the pioneer of Impressionism?

But there were artists who did not identify themselves with those styles at all, as is commonly believed. Today we will tell you about five of the most famous of them.

Salvador Dali

Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí

What is the question? Obviously, he is surreal… however, stop. In fact, the most famous surrealist painter in 1939 was excluded from the group of surrealists, and for the next 53 years of his work he was not the official representative of this direction. From their conflict, by the way, was born the phrase of Dali «I am not a surrealist, I am surrealism!»

Dali discovered his own unique technique – the paranoid-critical method, which differs from the method of the surrealists. And despite the fact that Dali is now considered the greatest representative of Surrealism, for most of his career he formally belonged to a different style.

Edouard Manet

Edouard Manet, «А Bar at the Folies Bergere», 1882
Edouard Manet, «А Bar at the Folies Bergere», 1882

In many sources, Édouard Manet is ranked alongside Claude Monet and the Impressionist company. In fact, Edouard was their predecessor. Of course, Manet communicated with the Impressionists and was interested in their work, but he himself denied any involvement with this style. On the contrary, throughout his career Manet strove for an official professional appraisal – that is, the recognition of the Salon, which the Impressionists opposed. And Manet never even once exhibited with them.

Edvard Munch

Edward Munch «The Scream», 1893
Edward Munch «The Scream», 1893

Next on our list is the author of the famous «The Scream» and other masterpieces. The direction of the artist, it would seem obvious – expressionism. But no! Expressionism evolved much later and independently of Munch. Meanwhile, the Norwegian master the young expressionists considered the ancestor of the direction and were inspired by his work.

But Munch himself created under the influence of Symbolism – a style of which he was a contemporary.

Frida Kahlo

Frida Kahlo (years of life: 1907-1954)
Frida Kahlo (years of life: 1907-1954)

The Mexican artist was considered by her contemporaries to be a Surrealist (particularly André Breton). But Kahlo herself categorically denied it (although she actively exhibited with the surrealists). She said that she «painted only her own reality and was not into fantasies». Plus Kahlo had no special education, and in combination with her formal features her work is referred to as the direction of naive art.


Leonardo da Vinci's drawings: Portrait of a Man in Red Chalk (left) and Vitruvian Man (right)
Leonardo da Vinci’s drawings: Portrait of a Man in Red Chalk (left) and Vitruvian Man (right)

Leonardo da Vinci – who was he?

The author of «Mona Lisa», «Vitruvian Man», «The Last Supper» and many other masterpieces which everyone knows for sure. However, the master never positioned himself as an artist. In the Renaissance, science and art were two sides of the same coin, and an outstanding man had to prove himself in different fields. Leonardo da Vinci referred to himself not as an artist but as an engineer (for example, in his resume, which he sent to the Duke of Milan in 1482). Another indication that painting was not his main occupation is how few paintings he painted.

Of course, the boundaries of styles in art are very conditional – everything is adaptive and subjective, each work of art is unique and combines many elements. But we have tried to dispel 5 common myths about well-known artists, based on generally accepted norms.

Entertainment for everyone

Amazing free activities in Moscow

Reading time 5 minutes

A weekend in Moscow does not necessarily consists of expensive activities. These are several amazing weekend options that will cost you nothing.

  1. TV-show filming 

    «Vecherny Urgant»

In the “Ostankino” broadcast center you can take part in the filming of various tv-shows: “Modny Prigovor”(The Fashion Verdict), “Zhit’ zdorovo”(Life is beautiful), “Pust’ govoryat”(Let them speak) and others. As a part of the audience, you may be paid from 500 to 100o rub. Such experience will enable you to see the process of filming and, if you are lucky enough, get on the screen.

Taking part in the filming of the “Vecherny Urgant” (The late-night show with Urgant) will not give you any money. In this case the audience is not just extras, they are the guests of the show. You will see Russian and international stars and will be given an opportunity to make a selfie with Ivan Urgant. Before  filming and between takes the audience is entertained by the co-host Dmitry Hrustalev.

Send your request to the show’s email if you want to see the film magic. In this request you are supposed to write your ID number (passport) and briefly explain why you are the one to be chosen. Announcements of the guests of the week and the rules of the show can be found in the VK group. 

2. Depending on interests, KudaGo and Timepad

In Moscow there are many free exhibitions, lectures, workshops, performances, open film screenings. Lifestyle and entertainment websites may be useful while planning one’s weekend.

On Timepad all reviews and announcements are brought by the organizers of events. Generally they are not writing about global events, but inform about small meetings and seminars. There are plenty of options on this website and everyone is able to find something appealing. 

KudaGo and work in the same way, but there you can find information about more grand events. These resources don’t have a“free event”filter, so you have to search for them specifically.

3. Museums

«The art of the 20-th century» In the new building of Tretyakovskaya gallery

In Moscow there are a number of museums that don’t require visitors to pay at all. For example, “Bulgakov’s house”, the museum of metro and the museum of Russian icon. Other places have “free entrance” days: every Wednesday for the “Art of the 20-th century” exhibition in the New building of Tretyakovskaya gallery, every friday from 17 to 21 pm for the Garage museum. However, you must register in advance if you want to go  to Garage for free. Every Thursday at 19:00 25 free tickets are released. For up-to-date information, please, head to the official website.

State museums that are managed by the Moscow department of culture take part in the “Moscow museum week”. On every third week of the month around 80 museums open for a free entrance. Some of them are the GULAG museum, the Cosmonautics museum, the Marina Tsvetaeva house, “Novyi Manezh”, the Moscow museum of modern art.

Many museums don’t charge students. You can visit the Vladimir Vysotski museum, Moscow united park-museum ( it includes Kolomenskoe, Izmailovo, Lublini). If you are a student, you can visit the Tretyakov gallery on the first and second Sunday of the month.


You don’t need a lot of money to spend an unforgettable weekend. Additionally to the places mentioned above, there are also many parks and  public spaces that do not require their visitors to pay. If the Gorky park and Zaryadie seem dull already, check out the unique places for a stroll.


Vaccination wrestlers are being driven from social networks

Instagram blocks hashtags against vaccination

Reading time 5 minutes

Instagram struggles with misinformation about vaccinations by blocking hashtags that show false posts on a controversial topic.

Anti-vaccination messages on social media are considered one of the reasons for the decline in vaccination rates in recent years, when an estimated 169 million children worldwide missed the first dose of measles vaccine between 2010 and 2017.

Instagram already bans obvious hashtags, through which antivaccination activists are spreading false information. Labels #vaccinescauseautism (vaccines causes autism), #vaccinescauseaids (vaccines entail AIDS) and #vaccinesarepoison (vaccine is poison) have been got under the block.  Now the policy of the social network is expanding hashtags, which may seem at first glance neutral and harmless.

Misleading reports of vaccination on social media are believed to be one of the reasons why vaccination rates have been declined in recent years

For example, the hashtag #vaccines1234 (vaccines 1234) does not contain anything alarming in its formulation, but if the platform finds that this hashtag is used in a number of messages to promote vaccine misinformation, it will be added to the block list. When a hashtag is blocked, users don’t get results when they search for it on the social network.

Instagram has not specified a limit on the number of times after which the hashtag will be blocked. Instead, the platform said it would ban the hashtag in case the content displayed on its page contained «a certain amount» of fake anti-vaccination information.

False statements, such as #vaccinescauseaids and #vaccinesarepoison has already been banned and do not show the search results in Instagram

Instagram has taken these measures after recent Facebook pleas. The company announced that it «is considering additional measures» to address anti-vaccination messages after concerns about a controversial topic that appears in the groups and on the Facebook pages.

At that time, the company recognized that the challenge was complex as it struggled to strike a balance between freedom of expression and the security of its users. Despite this, the social network said it will continue to fight the problem.

Last month health Minister Matt Hancock said he «can’t rule anything out» when was asked if unvaccinated children should be kept out of school. NHS England Executive Director Simon Stevens also described the vaccine’s abandonment as a «growing public health time bomb».

In addition to banning hashtags, Instagram is considering showing educational pop-up messages to people looking for vaccine-related hoaxes. The platform is already showing similar messages to people who are interested in information about drugs and self-harm.

Instagram plans to show educational pop-up messages to doubting people

In February, YouTube stopped showing ads on many popular channels that promote anti-vaccination conspiracy theories. He made this move after protests from firms who have discovered that their advertising works, along with the controversial video.

The world health organization (WHO) said that in 2019 anti-vaccination became the «top 10 global health threats».

What dry starvation is, and how it affects our health

Is organism able to supply the water scarcity dissolving lipids?

Reading time 4 minutes

What dry starvation constitutes

The method gist implies: a human completely refuses not only any food but also water during 1-3 days. This is a gentle form. A harsh form of dry starvation is the prohibition of all water procedures, even washing and toothbrushing.

Dry starvation proponents say that due to the liquids scarcity an organism is forced to rapidly supply its lipid tissue. There are 100-120 billion of lipid cells in human body. Lipids are the hugest energetic and water depo as during lipolysis (fat digestion) water is being produced. This is endogenous, or internal moisture. It is presupposed that it will be enough for the first few days not to die from the dehydration.

Except weight lose this method, allegedly, aids to avoid edema and even exclude inflamed areas: microorganisms whereas they are viruses or microbes also need water for reproduction.

The idea is interesting and charming, yet the truth is that beneficials are not scientifically substantiated.

What world medical society says about dry starvation

Nothing. It prefers to ignore the existence of this method.

The consumers of the popular news source Reddit tried to argument profitability (or at least harmlessness) of dry diet and were able to find just several links on scientific researches. However, the existing ones are not allowed to consider as exhaustive and undeniable.

For instance, one group of scientists made a research of the influence of a five-day water abstinence on a person. It didn’t reflect negatively on a testee health. On the contrary, their bodies lost in volume, and kidneys work enhanced.

Nevertheless, only 10 grown-up, physically healthy people participated in the experiment. Its results are not applicable for all human beings.

Dry starvation was mentioned in the handbook for physicians published in the Ministry of Health and Social Development 14 years ago. it is claimed, in particular, that an organism easier overcomes waterless starvation then orthodox with maintenance of drinking. Besides, it aids when a person is intending to lose weight and cure some illnesses. Authors equate three days without water and food to the week of non-refuse of food and water. Unfortunately, their claims are disapproved, that is why it is not allowed to believe them.

What, in fact, happens when an organism is dehydrated

Weight is really wasted and rapidly enough. Frankly, you will not be happy for a long time: such fluctuations of the body mass are mainly connected with liquid loss, not lipid tissue, and after drinking recovery kilos will return again.

This ends up with nominal advantages of dry starvation and it is time to speak about minuses which are numeral.

It is significantly easier to find information about negative consequences of food refusal. metabolic rate unstoppably going in our organism and maintaining our life is impossible without food. Due to the water lack metabolism is being slowed down, and it, at first, effects brain work.

The following symptoms catching up in the first days:

  • dizziness
  • headache
  • unreasonable apatia
  • concentration loss

The further, the worst. Doctors warn: it is fraught with hypoxia, kidneys illnesses, crampings and pre-existing conditions due to the broken transfer of neural impulses.

Summing it up, it is essential to note that dry starvation transfer a person to the extremal for his life conditions. Its value is not proved and harm is.

Flavorism: make it yummy!

Who and how creates your favorite tastes and smells

Reading time 4 minutes

We’re surrounded by product abundance with a host of numerous tastes: gingerbread, sundae, green tea and even baklava-flavored yogurts.It is not a secret that all of them contain flavor additives and flavouring. Who and where produces them?

IFF и Givoudan are huge companies which are responsible for producing flavor additives. They hire flavorists – specialists responding for flavouring elaboration for various food sectors. They also create smells for perfumes. One of their tasks is reviving goods «natural» smell which is being lost while producing and keeping in the warehouses and shops shelves.

Used flavourings and additives must not be harmful for the human organism, and the body of laws and orders is existing in this field: which explosives, components, chemical connections should be used, and this list is constantly being updated.

Flavorist arsenal of instruments is rather affluent: essences, various extracts, oils and other chemical explosives. Proper combination is able to provide a necessary taste. For instance, if mix lemon, banana, raspberry and ananas essences in particular proportions, one can give an initially tasteless product strawberry taste.

In order to become a flavourist it is necessary to have chemistry, biology and food technology education, be well-versed in organic chemistry. Every day a specialist deals with 4000 explosives. It is impossible to obtain necessary skills at university that is why it is required to master this craft intentionally while working. Many companies connected to flavorism teach their technologists by themselves. Consequently, employees receive high salaries.

Obviously, consumers are worried about flavouring safety, a great number of people are sure additives are harmful. Official Rosquality site ensures an interview with Olga Bagryantseva, a scientist of Federal research center of nutrition and biotechnology.

Doctor of Biological Science assures that it is worthless to worry about jeopardy: natural, artificial, identical flavourings pass numerous verifications. The body of flavour-aromatic explosives is existing, and their harmlessness is proved.

«Approximately thousand kilograms of food which a person is eating during one year contains only 500 grams of flavour-aromatic explosives. Even if flavourings were dangerous this amount would not be enough for doing our health harm».

However, various taste enhancers rapidly bring on adaptation and even addiction to get rid of which is very complicated. A human stops perceiving goods with natural, not enhanced taste, and begin to swallow up meals flavoured and supplemented with additives . This phenomenon can lead to health issues and at least to excessive weight.

The greenest browser

By sending a request through the Ecosia service, you restore forests in Africa

Reading time 3 minutes

Ecosia is a search engine that directs 80% of its income to finance reforestation programs. To participate in the landscaping of the planet, you need to spend 1.1 seconds on a search query.

The company spends about 28 cents on planting a single tree. Each search query in Ecosia brings in about 0.5 cents. The service is an alternative to charitable foundations, allowing users to do good without spending their own money.

The company was established in 2009. The founder and leader of Ecosia is Christian Kroll. Initially, the creators of the service planned to plant 1 billion trees by 2015. However, the program was not implemented, and Ecosia noted only the second million trees in 2015. The creators deferred the goal – now they plan to plant a billion trees by 2020. The company currently carries out more than 15 million searches per month.

Christian Kroll – the creator of Ecosia

Ecosia provides fast operation, privacy and security. Personal data and requests are not transferred to third parties. The service allows you to hide your search history, be in private mode and block ads. Also, Ecosia does not track visited websites and encrypts data. The system is constantly improving: now the search query is performed by 34 percent faster than last year.

Ecosia landscapes South America and Africa

The tree planting campaign takes place in areas of South America and Africa. Half a century of drought has devastated these regions, and now they need to be restored. More than 25 percent of the world’s population depends on forest resources, it is the foundation of a stable existence. Planting trees prevents climate change, reduces the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

The creators of Ecosia regularly publish financial reports, demonstrating the transparency of their accounting.

To use the service and help plantation of the planet, just go to the site and install the extension in the browser.

Шоу отменяется: нечего показать

Sony не станет проводить PlayStation Experience в этом году

Reading time 2 minutes

Sony решила отказаться от проведения своей ежегодной видеоигровой конвенции PlayStation Experience в 2018 году. Об этом сообщил председатель Sony Interactive Entertainment Worldwide Studios Шон Лейден (Shawn Layden).

Об отмене ежегодного мероприятия Лейден сообщил во время подкаста PlayStation Blogcast  28 сентября этого года. В качестве основной причины он назвал нежелание компании разочаровывать поклонником малым количеством новых анонсов.

«Я знаю, некоторых это разочарует, но мы приняли решение не проводить PlayStation Experience в 2018 году», – сказал Лейден.

Шон Лейден на PSX 2015
Шон Лейден на PSX 2015

«Недавно мы выпустили Spider-Man, а в 2019 году нас ждёт выход таких проектов как Dreams и Days Gone. Но этого недостаточно для того, чтобы собрать людей в одном месте в Северной Америке и организовать для них шоу. Мы не хотим вызвать большие ожидания, а после не оправдать их. Это было сложное решение, но в этом году PlayStation Experience не состоится», – добавил он.

Тем не менее, отмена PSX 2018 не означает, что новой информации по уже анонсированным и будущим проектам не будет. В том же PS Blogcast Лейден обозначил, что Sony намерена использовать PS Blog и свои социальные сети для коммуникации с поклонниками.

Это объявление стало ответом на просьбы фанатов прояснить отсутствие новостей о датах проведения конвенции. Как пишет Polygon, из-за отсутствия какой-либо информации о PSX 2018 в последние два месяца перед предполагаемым временем проведения выставки, некоторые фанаты обращались к сотрудникам SIE в социальных сетях за разъяснениями.

Помимо отсутствия у компании новых проектов, обозреватели выделяют и другие возможные причины отмены мероприятия. Так, портал IGN отмечает, что уже PSX 2017 было не таким «тяжеловесным», как предыдущие мероприятия, что Sony стала чаще использовать PS Blog и свои социальные сети в качестве площадки для анонсов. В качестве примера Джонатан Дорнбуш (Jonathon Dornbush), редактор портала, приводит анонс PlayStation Classic и оглашение даты выпуска God of War на портале компании. Российский ресурс «Игромания» также пишет, что отмена конвенции в этом году может свидетельствовать о том, что текущему флагману Sony – PlayStation 4, «готовится замена».

Главный холл PSX 2017
Главный холл PSX 2017

Первая игровая конвенция Sony состоялась в 2014 году. С тех пор компания проводила мероприятия PlayStation Experience в начале декабря каждый из последних четырех лет. PSX является одной из ключевых площадок Sony для связи с поклонниками и анонсирования новых проектов. На конвенциях компания показывает и анонсирует новые проекты для систем PlayStation. Компания неоднократно игнорировала сторонние мероприятия ради проведения более насыщенного собственного шоу. В этом году Sony впервые отказалась от проведения ставшей традицией выставки.

Grand final of space journey

Cassini приступил к завершающей стадии 20-летней миссии по изучению Сатурна

Reading time 10 minutes

Sorry, this text was translated with Google machine. Mistakes and misunderstandings are possible!

What happened?

The spacecraft Cassini, designed to explore Saturn and its moons, has entered the last phase of its journey – the Grand Finale. The probe will “dive” into the previously unexplored space between the planet and its rings, allowing scientists to obtain unique data, and then will be burned in the upper atmosphere of Saturn. So ends his journey, which lasted almost 20 years.

What is Cassini?
Cassini during a test

The robot spacecraft Cassini was developed in a joint project of NASA, the European space agency and the Italian space agency in 1997. It was given a unique task – to reach Saturn, the sixth planet of the Solar system, and explore the planet itself, its moons and famous rings. The unit is equipped with all the necessary equipment from the sensors of cosmic dust to the radio antennas.

Here you can get acquainted with Cassini for a closer look.

Huygens in the cut

An important part of the spacecraft was the Huygens module, which was supposed to land on the surface of Titan – one of Saturn’s moons, in order to examine the detailed.

Thus, the mission Cassini-Huygens was to become one of the most important achievements of mankind in space exploration. Automatic spacecraft would reach Saturn, becoming its first artificial satellite, and a lander module for the first time would land on the surface of Titan.

The Story of Cassini. Take-off


Cassini went in flight on 15 October 1997 from Cape Canaveral in Florida. To start it took a special booster “Titan-4B” with an additional upper stage “Centaurus”. Saturn, as you know, is at a great distance from the Earth – that is what forced scientists to resort to such measures. However, not even this was enough: Cassini went not to the point of its destination but… Venus.

The maneuver, which can cause confusion for an untrained person, however, was part of a well-planned operation. Cassini had to overcome the distance to Saturn with minimal expenditure of energy in order to successfully complete the task. For this, the researchers used the gravitational fields of the three planets: Venus, Earth and Jupiter.

the Presumed trajectory of Cassini

26 April 1998 Cassini skirted Venus, having received the required acceleration, then corrected its course and again passed the “evening star”. After that, the spacecraft flew between the Earth and the Moon and went to the purpose of his journey. About the middle of the road Cassini flybied Jupiter and July 1, 2004, after 7 years of flying, entered the orbit of Saturn.

The Story of Cassini. The study of Saturn
“Eyes of Saturn”

However, a space odyssey of Cassini-Huygens has not ended – here began the most interesting part – the study of Saturn and its moons. The spacecraft spent in orbit of the planet nearly 13 years and took lots of pictures of the object of study and its satellites. The Cassini’s camera allowed scientists to see Saturn from a very close distance, visually examine its atmosphere and eddies in it.

the Surface of Rhea

Cassini also made the most important pictures of Saturn’s moons, through which scientists have learned, for example, the existence of liquids on Titan. Being an artificial satellite of the planet, the spacecraft could not move away from it at a considerable distance, but even this did not prevent him to capture some stunning photos of Titan, Enceladus, Tethys, Mimas and other moons of “the planet with rings”.

Clouds on Titan

Module Huygens, in turn, was preoccupied with more problems – he managed to land on the surface of Titan and take samples from soil and atmosphere of Saturn’s moon. Because of this, scientists have learned that the surface of this moon has lakes, and also recorded several chemical anomalies, which may indicate the presence of life on Titan.

To learn more about the most important results of the Cassini-Huygens mission see this timeline:


The Story of Cassini. Grand Finale

April 26, 2017, Cassini launched the final phase of it’s journey, which is called the Grand Finale. The spacecraft first entered the space between Saturn and its rings, allowing scientists to obtain photographs of the planet taken as close to.

22 rendezvous with Saturn are planned, and Cassini will not only take pictures of the planet, but also will gather important scientific data. The spacecraft must map the gravitational and magnetic fields of Saturn, analyze the composition of its rings and atmosphere.

Cassini will end it’s mission September 15, 2017, when the unit will go into the upper atmosphere of Saturn to study its composition. It will transmit to the Earth the most important data to the moment until it is destroyed. This method to complete the work Cassini was not chosen by chance – the device has been in space for 13 years already and has almost exhausted it’s resources. Leaving it in orbit of Saturn is dangerous because the probe can fall into one of the satellites of the planet and stop their study in the future. So NASA believe that burning Cassini in the atmosphere will be the best solution:

– Always sad to see the end of the mission, but the last flight, Cassini will be the greatest end of the most rich scientific space project. Now Cassini has virtually exhausted the reserves of fuel used to adjust course. If you leave things as they are, operators will no longer be able to control it. The burning of Cassini in the atmosphere ensures that it will not affect further research

Comments of participants of the  Cassini-huygens project

British Professor Carl Murray participated in the project for 27 years. In the interview he told the BBC why the Cassini mission is the most interesting expedition ever conducted:

CarlMurray3_06-2015_crop– It was an amazingly successful mission. For 13 years we have been studying the planet from its orbit. It turned out that Saturn and its satellites there are times of the year, and rings to alter their structure over time. One of the most amazing discoveries made by Cassini is an ocean of liquid water under ice on one of Saturn’s moons, Enceladus. Through cracks in the ice cover of the ejected substance, and it contains molecular hydrogen, which on Earth is associated with water vapor and ocean depths and in General with life. People are always trying to figure out whether there was water on Mars and where it went. But now, I think the search will be concentrated on the periphery of the Solar system

Andrew Coates, British Professor of physics and Deputy Director of Muranowski laboratory for space research, worked on the project Cassini-Huygens for the past 28 years. Despite the success of the study, the scientist is sure that in the future mankind could expect more amazing discoveries:

11novPlanetCoat200– Now I am involved in the continuous search for life on Mars with the ExoMars Rover 2020 and the icy moons of Jupiter mission JUICE. In addition, in the mid-2020s, NASA plans to launch a mission of the Europa Clipper. It all sounds very tempting!

Gallery of the best photos by Cassini:

Additional information:


Step to the Elysee Palace

Макрон победил в первом туре выборов президента Франции

Reading time 8 minutes

Sorry, this text was translated with Google machine. Mistakes and misunderstandings are possible!

What happened?

In France on 23 April, the first round of the presidential election. The leader of movement “Forward!” and former economy Minister Emmanuel macron scored 23.75% of the votes. Next is the head of “National front” marine Le Pen – 21,53%.

results of the first round

In Paris for the Makron vote 34% of the vote, while Le Pen in the capital supported for 4.99%. The macron has become a leader in Lyon, in the Department of Gironde (capital Bordeaux), Toulouse and several other cities. Turnout made 78,23%.

the Distribution of candidates-leaders of departments of France
the Distribution of candidates-leaders in the departments of France
Who maintains the Rules?

The current President of France Francois Hollande congratulated Emmanuel Macron with a victory in the first stage of the presidential election and officially said that will vote for the founder of the movement “Forward!”.

Loser “Republican” Francois Fillon (he third place, 19,91%) urged his supporters to vote in the second round of the Macron. He added that the victory of marine Le Pen may lead the country to collapse.

The candidate of the Socialist party, Benoit Hamon, the Prime Minister of France Bernard Cazeneuve, Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault also made in support of the Macron.

What do the winners of the first round?

After the results of Makron made in front of supporters and journalists at the exhibition complex of Porte de Versailles on the outskirts of Paris. He said that he was going to become President of France in 15 days, “President of the patriots vs nationalists”, “a President who protects, changes and builds.”

“We got a chance to turn the page in French political history. The French expressed the desire for renewal”.

Marine Le Pen meeting with supporters in Henin-beaumont in the Pas-de-Calais called the result of the first round of “historic”. In her view, at stake is “frightening globalization” that threatens the nation.

it is Time to liberate the French people from the shackles of the arrogant elite who dictates his will. And Yes, I’m the people’s candidate“.


During the vote to a precinct in the town of Henin-beaumont, where the votes of marine Le Pen, here Nude Femen activists wearing masks itself Le Pen, her father Jean-Marie, Bashar al-Assad, Vladimir Putin and Donald trump. They were detained by the police.

Detention of activists

After the publication of the first results of the elections in Paris on Bastille square was held a rally “anti-fascists and anti-capitalists” who were against Le Pen, and Emmanuel Macron. About 300 protesters chanted: “We still, marine Le Pen or macron! We do not recognize the election results!”. The police used against the demonstrators with tear gas. 143 people arrested in clashes with police injured three protesters and six police officers.

Emmanuel macron and his program

Macron studied in National school of administration and Institute for policy studies. In 2007 he served as Deputy Rapporteur for the Commission on the improvement of French growth led by Jacques Attali. Then he met with the influential Rothschild family, became an investment banker at Rothschild &Cie Banque. From 2012 to 2014 he was Deputy Secretary-General of the Elysee Palace with President Francois Hollande.

Since August 2014, he occupied the post of Minister of economy, Finance and industry, but two years later resigned.

In April 2016, macron has created a movement of “Go!“, declaring it “neither right nor left”. In November 2016, macron said about his participation in the presidential election and published a book-the “Revolution”.

The candidate refers the project “the economy of the future” and identifies six priority areas: education, employment, modernization of the economy, security, restoration of democracy and participation in international life.


  • reducing the number of students in classes
  • independent schools
  • increase the number of teachers four or five thousand people
  • wage increases
  • extension of unemployment benefits
  • development of training programs to employees
  • enhancement of agreements between enterprises and the industry
  • creation of a domestic intelligence for counter-terrorism
  • increase defense spending to 2% of GDP
  • the introduction of compulsory military service for boys and girls
  • additional employment of 10 thousand policemen and gendarmes
  • reduce state spending by 60 billion euros over five years
  • introduction of a luxury tax (real estate)
  • the introduction of a fixed tax of 30 % on capital income
  • abolition of this tax from the voters for 80% of families
  • permit hijabs in universities
  • support for gender equality
International relations

Earlier macron stressed that “doesn’t want to compromise with Putin.”

“Russia has great people, great culture and history. We were often allies, including during the Soviet era. However, to date there is no reason to allow Russia to violate international law,” said macron interview the magazine Jeune Afrique.

Press Secretary of the President Dmitry Peskov said that Moscow is committed to building a “good and mutually beneficial relations” with Paris.

“as for the elections, we respect the choice of the French people. The French must decide who will be their President.”

What experts say

Doctor of historical Sciences, Deputy Dean of the faculty of World economy and world politics HSE Igor Kovalyov specifically for HIT. MEDIA:

Igor Kovalyov Program of Macron is an attempt to maintain the course that France was preaching and implemented. Given the contemporary challenges of migration crisis and the crisis in the European Union and against the background of a British exit from the EU, I think it is unlikely that this policy will seriously improve the situation of France and strengthen its status in Europe.

If it does the script, which at one time worked against Jean-Marie Le pen, when all candidates and all political forces United only in order not to let the right front, the Makron could become President. Another thing is that since that time has been quite a dramatic change, changed France, changed the party “national front”, marine Le Pen is not such an unusual candidate, like her father. Let’s see how events will develop. After the first round there are still two weeks will be a continuation of the campaign, with a new composition – not eleven, but two candidates.

Second round of presidential elections will be held on 7 may.

Argument or agreement?

Чем закончилась встреча Лаврова и Тиллерсона в Москве

Reading time 13 minutes

Sorry, this text was translated with Google machine. Mistakes and misunderstandings are possible!

What happened?

In Moscow ended a meeting of Sergei Lavrov and Rex Tillerson, held April 12 in the closed mode. As the results of the talks, the parties held a press conference late in the night, also noting that Secretary of state was made personally by Vladimir Putin. According to representatives of the Russian Federation and the United States, the meeting was quite promising: the politicians discussed many important issues and listened to the perspective of each other.

Working group to address urgent issues

A major outcome of the talks was the decision on the allocation of the special representatives of Russia and the U.S. for further discussion of problematic issues in relations between the two countries. The working group will, according to Lavrov, “in detail, without emotion, to look at those irritants that have accumulated in relations in recent years”. U.S. Secretary of state supports this idea, noting that Russia and the United States do not trust each other. “The two nuclear powers can’t be in this state,” said Tillerson.

Fate of Syria

However, the main theme of the meeting remained the Syrian issue, the views of the parties which seriously broke. The biggest conflict arose around the recent missile strike the U.S. air base in Syria. Russia regards this move as a deliberate provocation aimed at the overthrow of current President Bashar al-Assad. USA, in turn, confident in the correctness of the decision, although official evidence of the use of chemical weapons by Syria is not currently provided. CNN, however, utverjdaetthat American intelligence was able to intercept the Syrian military for this reason.

Sergei Lavrov and Rex Tillerson also discussed the future of Syria, which the current President, according to the American side, no place. U.S. Secretary of state said that “Assad’s regime is coming to an end” due to years of war in the country. Tillerson, however, said that the Syrian President “must undergo a structured and organized manner”, and expressed hope for cooperation with Russia in this matter. Lavrov in response said that Russia “does not rely on any person, neither for Assad nor for someone else,” and the question about the future of Syria should be resolved by the Syrians themselves.

Despite numerous disagreements, the sides still managed to identify a common position regarding the Syrian issue. So, Lavrov and Tillerson agreed that the fight against terrorism in the middle East need to fight together. The Russian side agreed to renew the Memorandum on the prevention of incidents in the skies over Syria, though allies will not follow it further violations.

Counteraction of the DPRK

During the talks, the sides also discussed the recently intensified the situation around the DPRK and its nuclear tests. In addition to the frequent discussions about possible US military action against Pyongyang, there is concern about the US decision to send to the Korean Peninsula carrier strike group, which not approved the DPRK. In dialogue with Lavrov Tillerson noted that the maneuvers of the ships was planned in advance, and the international community have no need for “something to turn up, due to their location and location”.

Further adding fuel to the fire of the recent publikacja New York Times on a possible nuclear test of the DPRK. The journalists believe that Pyongyang might time the sixth missile launch to the 105th anniversary since the birth of Kim Il sung. Against this background, particularly important seems the Tillerson comment about the fact that Washington and Moscow agree on the need for nuclear disarmament of the DPRK.

Minsk agreement

During the talks also touched upon the question of the Minsk agreements. According to Sergei Lavrov, Russia “felt interests” of the American side of the bilateral dialogue on the situation in Ukraine. “We have a common position that the Minsk agreement 2015 must be fulfilled”, – said the head of the foreign Ministry. Western sanctions against Russia at the meeting were discussed.

“Russian hackers”

The issue of cybersecurity, a newly-emerged after the charges Russia’s meddling in the elections in the United States, was also raised at the meeting in Moscow. Tillerson once again pointed to the presence of incontrovertible evidence of the invasion of “Russian hackers” in American cyberspace, however, the proof was never provided. Lavrov recalled U.S. Secretary of state about received even in 2015, the proposal to establish a joint fight against cybercrime, and noted that Russia “this interest is not only preserved, but also fully relevant.”

Future prospects

The development of bilateral relations between Russia and the United States is complicated primarily because of the contradictory foreign policy of the American side. Besides the attack on a military base in Syria, here we can recall the decision on adoption of Montenegro to NATO, which Moscow believe “deeply flawed”. The Ministry of foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation in his message said that the event “damages the stability in the Balkans and in Europe as a whole” and does not take into account the views of the people of the country.

However, the results of the meeting of representatives of Russia and the United States are leaving hope that the stabilization of relations between the two countries. Serey Lavrov after it also noted that “many hours that we spent today with Rex Tillerson together with the President of the Russian Federation, were not spent in vain”, and also expressed hope for the continuation of contacts. The administration of the President of the United States, in turn, said the timeliness of the meeting, and he, Donald trump said that Tillerson has done a “tremendous job”.

expert Comments Hit.Media

Andrey Vinogradov, doctor of political Sciences, Professor of the higher school of Economics, believes that Russian-American relations, all is not lost, despite the current deplorable situation:

Vinogradov“We have the official position, which is shared by the Kremlin and the White house: relations between Russia and the U.S. are at the lowest stage in many years. It is a statement that does not doubt and does not contradict positions of the parties. From that moment on, our relationship deteriorated, the experts and the one and on the other hand was hoping that the lower point will be passed. But each time these predictions did not materialize. It was for many reasons both fundamental and situational”

The expert notes that trump, despite the skeptical attitude towards it, has the ability to take a new look at the situation in the U.S. foreign policy and to take measures that will help to strengthen relations with Russia. This is evidenced by the fact of arrival to Moscow Tillerson is the beginning of direct contact, establish the main positions of the parties and finding a solution that satisfies everyone.

“What happens next? Our relationship still has room to fall. However, the closer we get to this bottom, the higher the probability that the trend will change. Yesterday’s meeting could be a point when the relationship will change. Much will depend on Americans, their political situation, because, of course, trump is a serious impact,”

Andrey Vinogradov notes that the United States currently face many different problems ranging from the threat of international terrorism originating in the events of 2001, and ending North Korea’s nuclear program poses a real threat to world leadership. America wants to maintain its position as one of the leading countries, but to do it every year it becomes harder.

“I think that Americans, by the force of inertia of consciousness and other reasons, remains as the main threat perceived by Russia. For some time they forgot about it, but again think about the threat to their leadership from Russia has helped the situation in the middle East, particularly in Syria and the situation in Eastern Ukraine and the annexation of Crimea”

However, the threat from China also seems to Americans very significant. It is no accident that all the recent US presidents, both Obama and trump, almost immediately after his inauguration, met with the Chinese leaders and then – from Russian. This clearly demonstrates the careful attention of America to China, albeit spreading more on the economic sphere. Russia is perceived as a global political rival, whose influence should be limited.

“During the 1970-ies we talked about a geopolitical triangle (USA, USSR, China), in 80-e years this concept went out of circulation, and now again possible to say that the trend of development of global international relations can be described by the concepts of simple geometric shapes. Triangle, if we are talking about East Asia, or quadrangle – if you add the European Union. I think that our relations with the United States can be considered now it is in these two geometric figures”

Dmitry Novikov, Junior researcher, Center for comprehensive European and international studies higher school of Economics, on the contrary, doubts that Russian-American relations can be a bright future. The expert attributes this primarily to provide for trump’s pressure, which is beneficial to Russia in the short term, but strategically, it carries large risks.

Novikov“The situation in Syria can negatively affect relations between the two countries, especially if the administration trump will adhere to the strategy of unilateral actions aimed at overthrowing the Assad regime. From the Russian point of view, articulated by trump during the presidential campaign, the abandonment of the practice of regime change was one of the positive aspects that Moscow welcomed. A return to this policy will meet the resistance of Russia and deterioration of relations. However, the visit Tillerson showed that the administration trump continues to seek ways to conclude a “deal” with Russia, albeit from a position of strength”

However, the probability of success of such a “deal” faster tends to zero. Starting in 2014 Russia and the United States are in a state of systemic confrontation and work exclusively in the military sphere, trying to avoid direct armed conflict. An example of such cooperation can serve the Memorandum on the prevention of incidents in the skies over Syria, which, however, is now suspended. Thus, the confrontation between Moscow and the USA almost reached its peak.

“The fundamental reasons for this confrontation are the fundamentally different approaches of Russia and the United States to how and on what principles should be arranged in the global political order, including a different assessment of the role of new centers of power in it. From the point of view of the United States, nor Russia, nor even China can’t act as equal partners of Washington. The importance of the Crimea in this sense goes far beyond Ukraine and even Europe, Russia has demonstrated the ability and willingness to use military force without the consent of other great powers and permanent members of the UN security Council”

Additional information: