(Not) to act against orders

Milgram's experiment on obedience to authority

Reading time 11 minutes

Why does a person, who causes suffering to others, only listens to orders from above? Perhaps it is due to the existence of an authority that cannot be resisted. Or is the whole point that a person is a sadist and he enjoys physical violence toward people? These questions were answered by Stanley Milgram, an American social psychologist who conducted a series of experiments on submission to authority.

Stanley Milgram was born in 1933 in the Bronx to a Jewish immigrant family. After World War II, his parents adopted relatives who had survived German concentration camps. Perhaps this fact explains why Milgram decided to conduct an obedience experiment in Germany. The scientist wanted to understand: “Why did German citizens participate in the extermination of people in concentration camps? Don’t they realize how cruel and heartless that is?” Milgram suggests that, for ideological or political reasons, Germans tend to be more submissive. However, before coming to Germany in 1963, Milgram decided to experiment in the United States. The results of the study show that there is no need to go far: submission to the authorities is not a characteristic of Germans, but of human consciousness in general.

Stanley Milgram. Personal archive of a scientist
Stanley Milgram. Personal archive of a scientist
Preparation and description of the experiment

Initially, the experiment took place in New Haven on the territory of Yale University. Milgram and his team sent the ads to city dwellers aged 20 to 50 working in a variety of occupations, from factory workers to hairdressers. To participate in the test, respondents were promised to pay $4 and 50 cents for the move. However, the subjects were not told the whole truth about the experiment: they thought they would help investigate how pain affects memory. The experiment involved the experimenter, the subject, and an actor acting as the second subject. One of the experiment participants (“student”) had to memorize word pairs from a long list until he memorized all the pairs, and the other (“teacher”) checked from scratch first and punish him for each mistake with a stronger electric shock. The two subjects drew a “vote”, and everything was arranged in such a way that only the actor was the student, and the actual subject was the teacher.

The scarecrow’s head was been fastened to the chair, and the teacher sitting by the generator has 30 switches, each switch was responsible for discharge from 15 to 450 volts and was signed: “Fighting blow”, “Very strong blow”, “Danger: hard to beat”, etc.

Then the experiment began: the teacher read the words aloud and the students had to give the correct answer, if it was wrong, the teacher increased the voltage each time. It’s important to note that the actor was just pretending to be hit. At the same time, when the subject hesitated and did not want to discharge strongly, the experimenter asked to continue using 4 phrases:

  • “Please continue/Please go on”;
  • “Experiment requires that you continue”;
  • “You must continue”;
  • “You have no other choice, you must go on”.
Electric shock generator used in the experiment
Electric shock generator used in the experiment

The experiment ended if the subject refused to obey and left, or if he reached 450 volts and gave the student this current shock three times. After the experiment, the subjects were interviewed.

In the classical variation of the experiment, the student was in a room isolated from the teacher. The subject could not hear the victim, only when the current discharge was equal to 300 volts, the actor began defiantly knocking on the wall, and then showed no signs of life: he did not complete the tasks, and did not respond.

Experiment results

Before the exam, Milgram interviewed undergraduate and graduate students, as well as 39 professors and psychiatrists, who tried to predict how many subjects would refuse the experiment, and how many would complete the experiment. All respondents agreed that 20% of the “teachers” would stop at 225 volts and only one person in a thousand would turn on all the switches.

However, the results differ from the forecasts. In the classic variation of the experiment, 26 subjects out of 40 (65%) reached the end of the experiment, and five people (12.5%) stopped at 300 volts when the victim began to protest by hitting the wall. Four subjects (10%) stopped at a voltage of 315 volts, two (5%) – at 330, and one people each – at the next three levels (345, 360, and 375 volts).

The subject switches the switches on the generator
The subject switches the switches on the generator
Why did people obey?

Milgram, in his book “Submission to authority. A Scientific View of Power and Morality”, explained this behavior of the subjects.

1. Obedience is human nature

Milgram said, “We are born with the potential to obey.” In the course of evolution, behavior that did not lead to survival disappeared. Behavior, including hierarchy, authority, and a special social structure, does not disappear, but on the contrary, develops. It is for this reason that submission is a natural process, especially for someone born into society. The moment an individual begins to obey authority, he acts as part of the general structure – his conscience recedes into the background.

2. Not my responsibility

People who obey authority are in the so-called agent state and act according to the mind of another person. For this reason, they do not feel responsible for their actions. To feel responsible, you need to understand that your “I” is behind all actions, while the subject thinks: “I have nothing to do with it.” This is especially noticeable in one of the variations of the exam, where the subject himself did not turn on the switches, but only noted the student’s mistakes: more people obeyed the authority since they did not feel that they were hurting the victim with their own hands.

The “teachers” shifted the responsibility to the experimenter, believing that he knew what was right. In situations where the subject had doubts, and the experimenter emphasized that he took full responsibility, the internal tension disappeared and the subject went through the experiment to the end. There were cases when people blamed the victim, called her stupid, and were unable to remember a few words. “He was so stupid and stubborn that rightly so,” said one of the subjects who obeyed. People reassured themselves that they did not feel sorry for such an unworthy person who could not do elementary things.

3. Disobedience causes fear

When the subject agrees to participate in the experiment, he sincerely wants to help scientists. The “teacher” wants to follow all the instructions, show himself on the good side, and be polite. It seems to the subject that by refusing the experiment, he will let the experimenter down, and also destroy his image as an authority – this is arrogant and rude. Insubordination in this context is psychologically worse than submission. After all, refusal will lead to social disapproval, of anomie. For this reason, in most cases, the subjects continued the experiment.

The victim is strapped into the electric chair.
The victim is strapped into the electric chair.

4. Image of Authority

Subordination is possible only if there is the real authority. An ordinary person does not have such power. In one variation of the experiment, the victim and the experimenter switched places. Now they shocked the scientist, and the order was given by an ordinary person. All subjects stopped the experiment when the experimenter began to complain of pain. Thus, an authority must have a certain attribute, knowledge, status, and place in the social structure to be listened to. In the study, the authority was the experimenter – a scientist, an educated person who knows more than the subject. The “teachers” trusted the scientist and completely relied on his opinion.

The Milgram experiment does not seek to denigrate people, to present them as cruel and unmerciful. All subjects were nervous, and doubtful, but did not dare to disobey the authority. They tried with all their might to avoid the victim, not to look at her, denied their responsibility, and talked with the experimenter that it was inhumane to continue the experiment, but did not refuse to participate.

Milgram’s research showed an important thing: when people enter the social structure, their individuality fades into the background and they forget about humanity. This is the weakness of our nature. Nevertheless, it can be overcome, because there were people who refused to obey. Cicero said: “The power of nature is great,” but man is stronger.

The article is based on Stanley Milgram’s book Submission to Authority: A Scientific Perspective on Power and Morality.

Let’s yawn, friends!

Scientists have found that it is easier to catch yawning from a closed one

Reading time 3 minutes

At one time it was believed that during yawning, a person provides the body with a large amount of oxygen and emits stagnant carbon dioxide in the lungs when the brain needs additional “recharging”. However, this version has long been recognized by scientists as implausible: even when breathing with pure oxygen, the desire to yawn does not disappear.

the mechanism of cooling the brain

American psychologists from the State University of New York in Albany believe that yawning acts like a fan in the computer: it cools our brain, and therefore improves its functioning. To test this version, in 2011, experts conducted a study that showed that in the cold season, people yawn less than in the warm, and the audience watching an uninteresting film with a cold compress on the forehead, yawn much less than those who miss without an ice bandage. In addition, sleep interruption causes a slight increase in brain temperature. That is why we need to make a tasty yawn immediately after awakening.

we yawn more often when we see a loved one

Italian scientists say that yawning is nothing but a sign of sympathy. They observed the inhabitants of Madagascar and Italy during one year and found out when and under what circumstances they yawned in response to yawns. As it turned out, it happened more often in the presence of a closed one or a relative, a little less often with colleagues. It was more difficult for strangers to force the interlocutor to yawn.

China continues to support coal projects

The risk of environmental consequences does not stop investors from the Middle Kingdom

Reading time 4 minutes

Environmentalists are sounding the alarm: China is funding dozens of coal projects far beyond its borders. Coal is considered the most environmentally hazardous of fossil fuels, including because of the amount of carbon dioxide that it emits during combustion (about one and a half times more than natural gas). According to the latest research of the World Meteorological Organization in 2017, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reached its highest level in the last 5 million years. Last month, the UN climate expert group said that the use of coal in production should be stopped by 2050. This solution should bound the global temperature rise to a limit of 1.5 degrees.   

Угольная электростанция в Китае
Coal power station in China

China-supported coal projects are being implemented in South America, Africa, Southeast Asia and the Balkans. The contracts concluded between the participants of such projects are often not completely transparent, but groups of environmental companies, including the non-governmental organization Bankwatch, try to monitor the situation. Energy Group Coordinator Ioana Chiuta says that efforts to combat the dirty air of Chinese cities have led many energy companies to limit their investments in coal-fired power plants in China and instead have targeted their technology and capital to foreign markets. 

Coal smoke must be cleaned, but this is not always done

Тепловая электростанция Kostolac
Thermal power station Kostolac

In Serbia, one of the country’s main coal-fired power stations is being expanded with a loan from a Chinese bank. Works have been carried out since 2017 under the leadership of a large construction company in China. An hour east of the capital city of Belgrade, in the coal-rich valley of the Danube, construction takes place on a site known as Kostolac B3. The power plant is managed by the national Serbian electric power company EPS, which provides about 70% of the country’s electricity by burning coal, while the rest is electricity produced by hydroelectric power stations. It is expected that Chinese investment in the project will amount to 613 million US dollars. The installation of the new power unit will bring Serbia 350 MW of additional capacity. The project must be implemented in accordance with environmental standards. 

Смог в Пекине
Smog in Beijing

However, the Serbian Center for Environment and Sustainable Development (Cekor) questions the project’s compliance with all environmental standards. After a series of relevant inspections of the project, Cekor found it impossible to ensure that EU standards for environmental pollution are in force.


Ilon Musk launches Hyperloop’s first capsule

The super-speed system on magnetic rails starts in Los Angeles on December 10

Reading time 2 minutes

The Boring Company successfully mastered the laying of the first vacuum tunnel for high-speed movement. The founder of the company, Ilon Mask, announced this in his Twitter account. The company has drilled 3.2 km under Los Angeles, the entrepreneur said that the opening of the tunnel will take place on December 10. On the launch day, no one will have to pay the fare, and in the following days the trip will cost $1.

Hyperloop is an ultrafast underground transport system based on pipes and magnetic rails. Autonomous cars with a capacity of 8–16 passengers rush inside the pipe at a speed of about 200 km/h. Initially, the tunnel was conceived solely for the carriage of cars, but now the main goal of the project is to create transport for passengers and cyclists. 

Художественное изображение автономного вагона Loop
Один из эскизных проектов автономного вагона Loop

The tunnel will function like an expressway. Equipped platform will launch vehicles under the ground and deliver to the destination. 

The 16.5 km long vacuum transport system was approved by the authorities of Washington and Baltimore. Boring is also planning to launch a tunnel in Chicago, which will connect the city centre with the airport. At the initial stage, the inventor in his characteristic style admitted that “he has no idea what he is doing.” However, the first project is already at the ready stage. The construction of the Los Angeles-Hawthorne Tunnel, begun in January 2017, has been completed.

“Heat shock protein” has caused information shock

Российские ученые объявили о создании лекарства, излечивающего рак даже в последних стадиях

Reading time 7 minutes

Sorry, this text was translated with Google machine. Mistakes and misunderstandings are possible!

What happened?

On Friday, March 3, appeared in the media reports of a new universal remedy for cancer. It was introduced by the doctor of medical Sciences Andrey Simbirtsev told about the invention of drugs, their properties and future production.

A new drug called “heat shock proteins”, according to the Professor, is able to cure patients of all types of cancer.

“We are on the verge of discovering completely new treatments for cancer. It will help people with incurable tumors.”

Institute of highly pure drugs of Federal medical-biological Agency (FMBA) have long been conducting research using space technology.

Andrey Simbirtsev, M. D., corresponding member of RAS, Deputy Director of the Institute of extra pure medications
Andrey Simbirtsev, M. D., corresponding member of RAS, Deputy Director of the Institute of extra pure medications

We Packed ultra-pure protein in capillary tubes and sent them to the ISS, says Simbirtsev. – The fact that for x-ray analysis of the action of the protein must be formed from it of ultra-pure crystal. However, in terms of earth’s gravity it is impossible to obtain.

Scientists have obtained the required degree of purity of the drug, and after confirmed its harmless, should begin testing for clinical level.

the Principle of operation of the new drug

The therapeutic effect is based on the introduction into the organism of a protein. This substance is synthesized by all cells under conditions of stress (e.g. heat shock) and performs a protective function, including secreting tumor antigens, enhancing the body’s immune response. However in the body this protein is not enough to defeat the disease. Therefore, scientists have developed a technology of its synthesis, and protein-based drug created the drug. It is argued that it operates on any cells, so it applies to treat all types of cancer.

The drug is tested on small animals: mice and rats. In most cases, a medicine used to heal even the last stage of such common neoplastic diseases, such as sarcoma and melanoma. It was concluded that the drug “has the necessary biological activity for the treatment of cancer.”

When the cure for cancer will be available?

The Institute has a grant for the first phase of research from the Ministry of education and science. Whether to continue development into clinical phase depends on funding.

Clinical studies are very expensive, about 100 million rubles. Usually there is a private investor who invests, and the state returns 50% in case of successful completion, says Professor Simbirtsev. While the private investor is not found, there is hope to find it in Russia or in Japan, and the developer is counting on the support of the Ministry of health or Ministry of industry.

According to the Professor, if the issue of funding is resolved, it will take another 3-4 years to complete the research before the drug gets to patients. On the expected cost of drugs are still unclear.

Expert’s opinion

Ella Tyuryumina, research Intern of the HSE, engaged in research on “Predictive models in Oncology and their software support”:

Ella Tyuryumina“the Study doesn’t differ from the previous domestic. Pathetic presentation of the questionable results obtained on mice with artificially grown tumors. Unfortunately, such projects do not work in the clinic. With regard to the basic concept of the new method, it is “well forgotten old”. This approach has been known for a very long time ago.”

The expert has noticed that in the published data there is no reference to the registered randomized study (clinical trial, in which patients are allocated to treatment groups is random), and this “suggests that there was performed statistical analysis not given study design, were not selected patients on special teams.”

Larissa Fechina, oncologist, confidant of the President of the Russian Federation
Larisa Fechina, oncologist, confidant of the President of the Russian Federation

Larissa Fechina, oncologist interview for NSN also questioned the creation of “some kind of universal magic pill”. The doctor is confident that the drug that can cure patients in the last stages of the disease, will be invented, but “the treatment is not addressed to all patients, and a certain group with a certain kind of cancer or multiple types of close nature. Victory over cancer will be possible in the era of personalized treatment,” said the doctor.

Oleksiy Muravyov, lecturer of the HSE:

Alex Muraviev“While it is proved that the drug reacts with sarcoma and melanoma, but malignant tumors quite a lot, and they are not limited to these two. Therefore, all of these broadcast statements should be treated very carefully. And the technology well known, nothing new there”.

What’s in other countries?

The author of “heat shock protein” was told that a similar development is underway by scientists in the US and Japan, but so far their results have not been published.

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“The employer needs to see that you did not come to carry the stones but to build the temple”

Как успешно пройти собеседование и почему иногда полезнее провалиться

Reading time 11 minutes

Sorry, this text was translated with Google machine. Mistakes and misunderstandings are possible!

Ilja ShmelevHow to break through the “HR-blockade,” to cope with stress, learn how to flatter and to turn disadvantages into advantages, said in an interview for the Hit.media business coach psychologist Ilja Shmelev.


How to behave?

The first is to say Hello and introduce myself. It is important to establish eye contact with the opponent, it sets the right tone for the upcoming conversation.

During the interview, switch the attention from his experiences on the employer. Gotta stand boldly and confidently, the interviewer must feel coming from your energy. It is important not only what you say but how you say it.

“Where focus goes there all our energy. This principle is at work here.”

The first impression in 15-30 seconds, and most often it occurs at the level of emotional response. Subconsciously immediately decides “your” or “alien”, it passed or failed — it is therefore important that the first impression was striking.

To win a man, you can use the technique “mirroring”. Pay attention to how he breathes at the pace of his speech. It does not seek to copy the movements, the facial expressions of the interlocutor, and just get it all in one rhythm.

“Your communication is a living process, it resembles a dance. It is important to feel the partner, but to understand that each of you own party.”

When applying for a job there are two possible positions. First — position “needs”, when the post you are essential. You initially put yourself in a vulnerable position and communicate with the employer as a person who has power over you. But the situation can be approached from the position of “partnership”. You come to the interview with the idea that today not only choose you, but you choose. Then the interview turns into a negotiation in which both sides will seek to win. You will respect the chain of command, but will be able to communicate with the employer on equal terms.

How to deal with excitement?

If you are experiencing a lot of stress, take a few deep breaths: the breath can quickly normalize the heartbeat and reduce the level of anxiety. Remember that naturalness is the main component of your behavior on an interview.

“Most of the questions needed not to hear from you the correct answer, and to see how you react to a stressful situation”.

Most often in HR-e psychologists, and even if you do not have enough professional skills, but you will be able to show your emotional stability, they will make a choice in your favor.

Why the stress when you come to the interview in the first place? You have just finished University and unsure of their abilities, believe that you lack experience and knowledge.

“When I graduated from University, I was looking for a job for the position of business coach. Failure followed failure because I lacked practice. But over time I realized that its lack was my main resource. The employer does not need me to retrain, it can independently mold specialist that is needed”.

Any fault in the desire turns into a plus. When you learn to do it, will be able to relax and in the end achieve the desired result.

What to replace the lack of experience?

The world is changing fast and what worked yesterday or today might not work any more. But as humans lose the desire to improve their skills.

“During Potanin selection Kursk medical University is one of the deans said, modern surgery is developing rapidly, and where an elderly surgeon will do surgery, young could do two small punctures. So from the point of view of professionalism, he will not yield and the fact that they will pass their older colleagues.”

The interviewer’s attention is drawn to the fact that, because of the ability to innovate the quality of your work may be higher than the more experienced competitor.

“And should remember the parable about the three bricklayers. One of the builders asked why they carry stones. One replied that he needs to feed itself, the other earns money for his family, and the third said that he is building the greatest Cathedral in the world.”

So your employer needs to see that you came to him not to carry the stones and build the temple, he must believe you’re going to burn the idea. And then the level of your current competence will depart on the second plan.

How to interest the employer?

If you are dealing from a position of “partnership”, you may figure out which location is the source, ask him what he thinks of your ideas, if you happen to see any doubts. If you come from a position of “need”, the main goal is to convey to the interviewer that you are important to this position, and to do that you are ready, come what may. But even you must feel the measure and not to all the conditions meekly accept. It will be perceived with respect and likely to kindle interest. Besides, you will prove serious approach to the job and do not rush on everything.

The interview is appropriate to praise himself.

“What is employment? It’s “selling himself”, of his time, expertise and resources. The laws of marketing has not been canceled: in order to sell more expensive, the packaging must be beautiful.”

Employer can attract and the knowledge of the company, where you came from. If I say that acquainted with the activities of the company, perused the website, read about her in the press, and you liked so-and-so, you will not make a compliment to the person sitting in front of you, but through your awareness you will be able to flatter him.

How to approach tricky questions?

Here are some typical questions from the Arsenal of HR, which may confound, if they do not prepare.

“What can you tell me about your weaknesses?”

When you see the list of required competences, it to come up with “quality-antonyms”. If you find these qualities and strengths, they will become your allies. Can, for example, admit they do not know how to drive a car and not going to the right, but it will not be late in the morning so getting to work will be by metro. I can say that are lazy, but to add that stop to give my hundred percent, but when you don’t see the purpose in their work, and again, it will be interpreted.

“Why I left my last place of work?”

Should not talk about conflicts with the authorities. You can do a phrase like: “I have reached the maximum level, and it is important for me to grow, to constantly improve their skills.”

“how are you different from other candidates?”

Here it is important to separate personal and professional qualities.

“On the professional skills you can be along with everyone, but there are so-called soft-skills, which will tell you a secret, the employer is more important.”

Pay attention to the qualities that are required in your area. In one case, assertiveness, leadership, initiative, and the other with the ability to captivate, to inspire, to smooth out conflicts.

In this case, remember that you are not bound to know the answer to all questions. The desire to answer all and to prevent any mistakes often turns against us. We must honestly tell the employer that you are currently the answer is not ready, but unable to access necessary sources and reply later. Don’t be afraid to admit that you don’t know something, ask follow-up questions. The employer will see that you don’t just want to impress him, but acknowledge your weaknesses and ready to work on this.

What to do if you refuse?

This is a normal part of the process, and do not engage in self-flagellation. Any failure provides an opportunity to correct their actions.

You need to determine what works, what should be paid attention to. Can, improve a resume or carefully to keep the appearance consistent with, applying. Most importantly, do not give up and continue to work on yourself.

“If you look at the obstacle, then you are going to Balk, and if attention is focused on the goal, you will quickly find a way around the difficulty. Make sure that the process does not become in “dancing on rake”, and taught how to avoid similar mistakes in the future.”

It is useful to record (on tape) their interviews where it is not prohibited.

Finally, you allow yourself to fail one more time and just be yourself. In any case, it’s a great experience. The more interviews you complete, the sooner you understand that the employer wants to hear really. To get the desired position, it is necessary to allow a certain number of mistakes, so the best exercise before the interview — another interview.

The most patriotic day

6 августа может стать Днем патриотизма

Reading time 7 minutes

Sorry, this text was translated with Google machine. Mistakes and misunderstandings are possible!

What happened?
Vladimir Aristarkhov
Vladimir Aristarkhov

The first Deputy of the Ministry of culture of the Russian Federation Vladimir Aristarkhov announced that the Agency has considered the initiative to establish in Russia a Day of patriotism “worthy of attention”. This is stated in the letter addressed to the Chairman of the Duma Committee on defense Vladimir Shamanov. Aristarkhov also drew attention to possible financial constraints on the part of the budget of the country and indicated the need for further discussion of the initiative:

“The mentioned issue shall be considered as a subject to wide public comment and conduct a historical and chronological assessment of the Russian Academy of Sciences”

What’s the idea of a holiday?

The proposal to declare August, 6th as a Day of patriotism was sent in the state Duma on 14 November 2016. The author – Rahman Anshukov, President of the Association of entrepreneurs for the development of the business patriotism, “Avanti” – not only prepared the draft of the law, but also amounted to an explanatory note to justify the need for the establishment of the feast.

Rahman Anukov
Rahman Anshukov

It states that the introduction of anti-russian sanctions, the purpose of which was the violation of the economic stability of the country, has had the opposite effect. The policy of import substitution was very effective countermeasure, to unite the citizens of Russia in the struggle for economic independence, “which was a real expression of patriotism in difficult conditions of constant political and economic pressure”.

The main role in the fight against sanctions, according to Anshukov, was played by the RF presidential decree dated 6 August 2014 “On application of certain special economic measures to ensure security of the Russian Federation”. Thanks to him, “business patriots” found the strength to move forward and to resist anti-russian policy of the West:

“The Establishment of a new memorable date August 6, the anniversary of the adoption of the decree of the President of Russia, will perpetuate the manifestation of unity within the country, which helped to meet the internal growth external pressure”


Even at the time of making proposal to establish a Day of patriotism this holiday has undergone massive criticism. Internet users have used all your sense of humor in order to beat as the title of the new “Victory day” and the purpose of its introduction:

This victory day smells like palm oil (re-write of russian song, can’t be translated)
Patriotic Day is too much though. But we can call it whether Galore Day or Healthy food Day (cabbage, turnip, whatever else is russian)
Vitaly Milonov
Vitaly Milonov

In the state Duma, however, the initiative met no resistance. Deputy Vitaly Milonov has fully supported the idea of establishing a day of patriotism, noticing that mark it is possible and without the usual foreign products:

“It used to be Australian, new Zealand, Argentinian meat, but not now. Only Voronezh, Bryansk only. Indeed, the quality is very decent”

“Patriotism Day” in other countries

The only country in which there is a public holiday with the word “patriotism” in the name, is United States. One of his first decrees Donald Trump announced the day of his inauguration – January 20 – as National day of patriotism. Special piquancy of the situation makes that in the USA even before Trump, there were two public holiday with a similar name: Patriot’s Day is celebrated on 11th November across the country in memory of the victims of the terrorist attack of 2001 and Patriot Day – April 19 in the States of Massachusetts, Wisconsin and Maine commemorating the first battles of the war of independence.

expert Opinion for the HIT-Media
Vasily Abashkin
Vasily Abashkin, senior expert, candidate of economic Sciences, HSE

“I think, to maintain national unity just one occasion. August 6, in my opinion, the date is artificial, opportunistic and politicized that nothing, no one, apart from some individuals, not associated.

Besides, if it be considered as a geopolitical response to Trump, as a flawed attempt. No value added, that is good, I do not see this”

Additional information:


The world will know about dangerous asteroid 5 days before his fall.

Новая система наблюдения за астероидами

Reading time 4 minutes

Sorry, this text was translated with Google machine. Mistakes and misunderstandings are possible!

NASA has created a system alerts “asteroid attack.”

According to the newspaper Universe Today, it can detect any threat object five days before his fall to the Earth.

In 2011, the event dedicated to the presentation of the catalog of NEOWISE, NASA officials said today it is known only about five thousand asteroids with a size of approximately one hundred meters. However, the total number of large and medium-sized asteroid of a few tens of thousands. The number of small meteorites reaching the million.

Asteroides in the space
Asteroides in the space

Many asteroids already discovered by the astronomers, however, ground-based telescopes is insufficient to detect and identify other heavenly bodies.

Cometa in the night sky
Cometa in the night sky

Researchers are not immediately able to notice the Chelyabinsk meteorite, because at that time (winter of 2013) was almost impossible to detect a celestial body in advance of approaching the Earth.

That is why NASA, Russia’s Roscosmos and major space organizations and other countries are working to create systems of detection of asteroids to their dangerous proximity to Earth and plan to create a “space of defense”.

The first such invention was the Scout engineering system from NASA, designed and already tested this fall. With her help was able to detect the asteroid 2015 UR36 five days before his approach to Land, calculate the size, compute the distance at which he can approach.

Five days is a short time, but scientists previously discovered asteroids only a few hours before their fall. Five days to really take security measures, to predict consequences, develop a plan to prevent the fall of a celestial body.

By 2018, NASA plans to launch several micro-satellites NEA Scout, which should help researchers to fill the gaps in the predictions relative to the asteroids. If a celestial body approaching the planet, one of the probes will fly up to him, make images of the surface and analyze chemical composition.

Recall that recently the Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences space was sent to Roskosmos list of promising research projects. Among them was a project to monitor asteroids.

In Russia there is a similar invention that allows to predict the approaching asteroids that threaten the planet: “SODA”. Using this system it is possible to detect flying from the Sun asteroids larger than ten meters.
The fall of the Chelyabinsk meteorite was sudden for the reason that it could not see any one ground-based telescope before the entry of a meteorite in Earth’s orbit. He flew in the direction from the Sun and fell in the daytime, so it was impossible to see due to the light that “kills” the image. To see the celestial body, it was necessary to place the telescope between the sun and the Earth towards the planet.

Chelyabinsk's meteorite in the museum
Chelyabinsk’s meteorite in the museum

Anton Dolin: “Reflection is the best training”

Кинокритик об искусстве и времени, в которое мы живем

Reading time 11 minutes

Sorry, this text was translated with Google machine. Mistakes and misunderstandings are possible!

Year of Russian cinema is coming to an end. In September, the Department of Culture of Moscow management training programs launched the course “History of Cinema. XXI Century “curated by film critic Anton Dolin.

You ask a lot of questions about the movie. Which of these do you most dislike to answer?

Most of all – what is your favorite movie. The question essentially unanswerable, it is very difficult to explain that failure on my part to answer is not to say that I have no such film. Any person working in the cinema, these films are infinitely many, every week – new. Tastes are required to be mobile as he is mobile cinema, or could be called the best film in the history of cinema and just stop this kind of art.

Another issue which is always depressing to me – what to see? As long as I do not understand who is my companion, adequately to this question will not answer. Hence the huge number of claims on Facebook that rained on me every day.

You came to journalism after the philological faculty of the Moscow State University. What, above all, you taught filfak?

The fact that in modern Russian philology – science no one wants and no one is interested. We are doing it only for development of the brain and the soul, but not for a living and feed a family. I had to go into journalism with regret, it was a forced gesture. But now I do not regret it, because journalism led me to the movies, and I Philology about it and did not think, when the movie was only one of many hobbies.

In your opinion, the faculty of journalism – a necessary step for the future of the journalist?

This is – a necessary evil. Its existence legitimizes representation of society about journalism as a profession, which can hold or not hold, teach or learn. Journalism – it is an opportunity to get a degree and four years of training to get acquainted with a number of interesting people.

Home education – self-education, especially in the case of any humanitarian. Applied learning skills “in the field”, theoretical you learn by reading books, watching movies, going to the event.

Of those great journalists I know, two-thirds of journalism is not finished. So it is, by and large, it is meaningless, especially in Russia, where journalism is now suffers permanent and incurable crisis.

You yourself take interviews with creative people like to talk with such a man?

The conversation is impossible, but with the talkative, you can chat and talk endlessly turn unproductive. The secret is probably as old as the world – it is necessary to say that you are not interested, and the other party. It is not necessary to require that is not included in its purview. Analysis of the film or a work of art – the prerogative of criticism, not the artist. The artist analyzes his work – a bad artist. So when you ask the director to talk about what he had in mind, building a particular system of images, you insult him that he did not understand this and try to put into words what he had tried to explain with the help of symbols. It is better to ask about his political beliefs or favorite musical group.

If you will remember that everyone is different, and interested in your interlocutor in advance, you get a good interview.

To shoot, you have to learn and to look?

The same study, just as in the case of shooting a movie, it can be self-learning, not necessarily to go to college. Sometimes enough to watch a lot of reading and a lot of thinking. The process of reflection – this is the best training. Who among the directors of many so-called “non-professionals” and they are wonderful, talented people. On the other hand, there are honors, the most of which – the shooting of the series for the cable, trash channel. It is a question of talent, and the issue of reflection.

Why teach people to watch the movie?

People go to the movies out of habit, not knowing why they do it. At best, they understand that they want to have a good evening and a good time. But there are different entertainment. For some, the rise of Mount Everest – entertainment, for others – hard work. Same thing with the campaign to Tarkovsky, for example.

You will be examined in themselves, at least partially, and understand what you want – that’s half the battle. And then you can just resort to various advisory services and do not listen to advertising. Not all people understand these things completely a priori.

For example, I am on his every conversation (I can not call it a lecture) “Why watch a movie,” I explain to people that the movie is better to look at the big screen in the original sound with subtitles. These things seem so obvious, but people are surprised and even then write thank-you letters.

What are the specifics of the training course, you are now kuriruete?

This course was born out of my loathsome employment in many jobs that did not allow me to read a full course of ten lectures, and so I had the idea to turn to the nine my colleagues to read a lecture every other lecturer. This achieves a kind of polyphony, counterpoint. The course is read by people making the film (director and screenwriter), people watching a movie (critics), people are showing a movie (festival director). Accordingly, this approach to modern cinema with three different sides. The theme of the twenty-first century, the movie I’ve been obsessed with, because we live in this age of sixteen years, but psychologically is still in the twentieth, from where most of us come from.

We think in terms of the time it’s over. As the time has changed, it has not really been studied. I think that such training courses – is the beginning of understanding the process.

The Russian alternative cinema – response to the social demand, or preparation of the society?

Society – is the society, it is a mutual process. In addition, our non-profit movie infinitely different, we can not make any general conclusions about him as about the commercial, it includes and talented work Jora gooseberry and mediocre products Sarika Andreasyan. The audience wants something, the authors want to show something, they continue to occur or do not occur. With the “Duelist” meeting took place only in part, with “Stalingrad” and “Leviathan” of course, but the “Russian Ark” Sokurov with his audience is not met in Russia. It does not speak about the quality of the film, it is only that happened or did not happen “meeting”.

How do you feel about adaptations?

My attitude is based on the axiom: the book is not a film. Long ago, André Bazin and Truffaut invented the theory of the author, in accordance with which the author is a film director. This is a very simple idea. If the director puts the film on the Lev Tolstoy, Tolstoy ceases to be the author of the work. The author of “Anna Karenina” – Joe Wright. As soon as we approve it, we will stop constantly to compare with the original film adaptation. No one comes to mind to compare the “Saxon Chronicle Grammar” tragedy “Hamlet”, despite the fact that Shakespeare’s story is taken from this chronicle. No one compares the “Tale of the Golden Cockerel” with Washington Irving’s short story, where Pushkin borrowed the story. “Hippolytus” by Euripides and “Phaedra” Racine – two tragedies on one plot.

Understand the movie – is another art, not literature. Similarly, the literature uses music, art.

You’ve probably seen the video, which compares the images from “Mirrors” and “Survivor.” What do you think, is the personification of plagiarism or continuity in the movie?

This, of course, not plagiarism. I very concept, as the concept of compromising, seems rather artificial. You see, if there are two works of art and both have found their audiences, both successful in their own way – what difference that one borrows from the other. If one is a copy of another, the copy would not be demanded by the audience. It is understood that “Survivor” and “Mirror” in demand for a variety of reasons. And what Iñárritu loves Tarkovsky and his quotes … I’m sorry, Leonardo da Vinci quoted by Giovanni Bellini and Bellini – Byzantine icons. And in general, all icons in each other quoted. However, Andrei Rublev, Dionysius, Theophanes unique.

This is an individual artist’s DNA, which is always there, regardless of whether he works for someone else’s canon or completely invent something out of my head. Let us remember that the head is from the cultural baggage that you have.

You can cite unconscious and Jung about it a lot, he wrote in his theory of archetypes. For example, someone writes a story about how the hero fought with the dragon. This does not mean that someone familiar with the legend of Saint George and the legend is trying to copy.

As you relax by watching movies?

I do not look, that’s all. When I go on vacation with his family for two weeks – a single frame, a single film. I read a book, walk along the sea, play with the kids, the dog, listening to music very different, simply switch your mind on something else.

What do you think is the recipe for a good movie?

For me personally, one recipe – the film should surprise. You can do an infinite number of different ways. But if the film is surprising, therefore, it does have something new, and it is – the first sign of talent.

And finally, the blitz. Name the movie that:

  • caused tears: “Terminator 2”
  • not worthy “Oscar”: “Tony Erdmann”
  • I looked yesterday: “The house of strange children Miss Peregrine”
  • shame not to see “Barry Lyndon”
  • I want to forget, “He has Karlosona”
  • recalls his childhood: “The Tale of wandering”